Tag Archives: Ysrael

10th RSS# (፲/י) Portion Study

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

RRR - prototype (2015-16)

I welcome you all to a new regenartion of cycle Torah readings!  This is another one of the many interpretations of the Scriptures from the light of Ras Tafari by, I, Lidj Yefdi (pronounced Lij, Yef-dee).

I assure you that if you are patient with me, come with a willing mind and heart(ready to learn), you will receive more than what you might have asked for, in seeking the perspective of a Ras Tafarian’s I-sight (eyesight) into the study of the Scriptures.

So,with this Hebrew Shabbot(or Sabbath day) if those who actually open up their Bibles to read in a Jewish/Hebrew cycle of readings, & thoroughly discern, have come to the opening of  the Torah portions with Miketz – מִקֵּץ.  On the Jewish or Hebraic Calendar in this year 5776, this Sabbath day would probably fall on the 29th – כט, & the 30th – ל, of the month of Kisle(v)w – כִּסְלֵו, for this week, in this mode of study; for those out in the diaspora or outside of Jerusalem/Israel.  (The Hebrew Calendar corresponds to a Lunar cycle of the Moon) &, from an Ethiopic-Christian perspective, in what may be known as the year 2008/2028/7508, on the Ethiopic calendar.  This calculation, with its readings from the Scriptures, would align to the 1st – ፩, & the 2nd – ፪,  of the (ወርኀ)month of Taḥ’sas – ታኅሣሥ.  In the Scriptures, this portion of study would also be known as BeCḥʷallam – በኋላምThe Ethiopic calendar is solar (with its correspondence to the Sun) aligns to this Sabbath (or Senbet-ሰንበት) in the Ethiopian language of Amharic, which is currently one of the languages of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (the other language being Ge’ez-(ግእዝ).

Readings:

Genesis 41:1 – 44:17

I Kings 3:15 – 4:1

Romans 10: 1-13

** SHABBOT HANUKAH **

image provided by livethebible.com

image provided by livethebible.com

In continuation of our study of the Scriptures, we come to the parsha of Miketz, Ethiopically known as BeKHwalam (Kehulet Amet BeKHwalam.)

miketz - parsha [7cows]

The last portion ended with Joseph, the son of Jacob(Israel), being sold by his own brothers, & through trials of times, Joseph found himself in Egypt.  As a prisoner in Egypt, he is still blessed by God grace.

 miketz - parsha [seven ears of corn] Gen.41vrs5

Joseph, now in the company of other prisoners, (ie. the chief baker, and butler), interprets visions they’ve had.  The news of the gift that Joseph has, reaches the ears of the Pharaoh, & Pharaoh, inquires of Joseph assistance for a vision he cannot make sense of.

miketz - parsha [pharaoh's dream]

Pharaoh, summoned all of the magicians, of Egypt to interpret the dream troubling dreams he had been having.  But, surely, there was none of them who could interpret the dreams for him.  So, upon hearing about an Hebrew, in the dungeon, who seemingly interpreted dreams in accuracy, of other prisoners and others, Pharaoh, called for Joseph’s release; for he wished to see if Joseph could give an interpretation of his dreams.

[Gen. 41: 1-40]

miketz - parsha

Joseph, then was set in high regard to Pharaoh, by his command because he interpreted Pharaoh’s dream with such great understanding.  Pharoah called Joseph, Tz’aphnat Paneah’kh-צָפְנַת פַּעְנֵחַ, & he was given Asnath-אָסְנַת, the daughter of Potipherah, the priest of OnAsnath, bore Joseph, two sons, which he called Manasseh & Ephraim.  Because of Joseph’s interpretation of Pharaoh’s dream, many nations came to Egypt to buy food, for Joseph had stored for the years of famine that was great upon the land.  Jacob(Israel) sent his sons, all but the youngest, Benjamin, for he feared that something may happen equivalent to Joseph’s disappearance.

[Gen. 41: 40- 42:5]

miketz - parsha [Yosef ben Yaicob ben Ysrael(Tsafnat Paneach) - Asnat)Joseph(Tz’afnat Pa’aneahkh’) & Asenat(Asnat)

The sons of Israel, went into Egypt to buy things like grain, for the famine had left them with very little.  Joseph, saw his brethren, but they were unable to notice him for he was dressed in the apparel of Egyptian nobility.  There he confronted them as if, he were dealing with spies & commanded that they send their youngest brother along with them for Joseph had not seen Benjamin, with the others.  The brothers returned and told Jacob(Israel) what happened while they were in Egypt.  Judah, one of the brethren spoke firmly with Joseph, and their father Jacob(Israel), in the matter of their youngest brother, Benjamin.

[Gen. 42: 6 -43:17]

Joseph & his brother Judah

Judah consults with Joseph _ painting by James J. Tissot

 

Upon the return of all his brothers, with their youngest brother, Benjamin; Joseph made haste to see all of them together again.  Joseph, appealed to Pharaoh to bring his family to Egypt, for the famine was so great & he wished not to see his family struggle in the land of Canaan; Pharaoh permitted the Hebrews to enter in, on Joseph’s behalf.

[Gen. 43:18- 44:18]

miketz - parsha4

✡ Festival of Weeks/”FirstFruits” – መከር በኲራት ነዶ – שבועות – Shab(v)uot ✡

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

432_417386508351927_1732265329_n

Ras Tafari Renaissance writes to give perspective to the Hebraic celebration or festival of Shab(v)uot.  This celebration is also known as  the “festival of Weeks“: or could be also called the “First Fruits.”  Here RRR, writes to give some insight, and perspective on the High Holy day mainly because, it is what would be apart of the Shalosh Regalimשלוש רגלים– (Three Pilgrimage Festivals) [ie…including Passover, & Sukkot, which would complete the Pilgrimage festival cycle]), which is known well throughout modern Judaism traditionalism.  But, while giving Biblical restoration tidbits of information for the education of those who may or may not have any recollection in the mind of what Shabuout is as a representative of….Also, in how the original Christian church, which is Hebraic in original ties into the Ethiopic Tewahido-Orthodox’s, celebration of Pentecost.

[giving honorific mention also to those Eastern-Orthodox churches as well as any Christian church that still holds the rituals and rites for this commemoration]

YeIgr Menged Selassie - Shalosh Regaliim

Shabuot, is a celebration that memorializes the giving of the Biblical Law, (commonly now known as, the Torah-in modern Judaism) to the children of Israel, in entirety, as a nation on Mount Sinai, after the Exodus from the land of Egypt.

http://www.hebcal.com/holidays/shavuot

shabuot-festival of weeks7

The Torah, (Biblical) mandates the seven-week Counting of the Omer, beginning on the second day of Passover [Nisan/Abib 2], to be immediately followed by Shab(v)uot.  This counting of days and weeks is understood to express anticipation and desire for the giving of the Torah.

shabuot-festival of weeks4

The Hebraic or commonly known as “Jewish,” holiday occurs on the sixth day of the Hebrew month of Siw(v)an-סִיוָן(usually in late May or early June).

blessing haShabuot– from hebrew4christians.com

Shabuot, is also known to be a festival of harvest, or reaping festival.  It is another version that can be assessed as a reaping of souls as well.  In the Christians’ celebration of Pentecost, the teachings come from the coming down of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples after Christ crucifixion and resurrection.

shabuout-festival of weeks[pentacost-jesus-mafa]

– Acts 2

To assure the devotion of the twelve along with other present with them in the time of trials, God sent his Spirit upon in the midst of his people to assure them that no matter the consequences in the world; he would be with them always….

shabuot-festival of weeks8

Readings (for more education on the subject matter):

Exodus 23: 16

Exodus 34: 21, 22

Leviticus 19:9

Leviticus 23: 10, 22

Deuteronomy 24: 19

shabuot-festival of weeks3

From an Ethiopian perspective, which more than likely had a heavy influence on the Hellenistic Jewry, (ie…Judeo-Christian [origin] root) gives per insight on the teachings of Pentecost in relation to the Hebraic celebration/memorialization of Shabuot.

shabuot-festival of weeks6

Also in the Ethiopic tradition the festival of Pentcost (Shabuot), is recognized by calculation of the priests, and laymen. The Feast of Pentecost, always begins on Sunday(Ihud[እሁድ]-Senbete Krystiyan[ሰንበቴ ክርስቲያን])፣ and cannot come before the 15th of the Ethiopian month of G’nbot; also cannot be after the 19th of Ethiopic month of Sänäï

shabuot-festival of weeks13(pentecost)

– Ethiopian artistic rendition of the Biblical accounts in Acts of the Apostles; Chpt. 2

Reading (for education):

Acts 2: 1

Acts 20: 16

I Corinthians 16: 8

shabuot (ethiopic-amharic translation-Mek[ḥ]er BeKʷirat Nedo)

SHABUOT:

FESTIVAL OF WEEKS

FIRST FRUITS”

“PENTECOST”

shavuot readings

Ras Tafari, “Are You A KH’assid/Orthodox Jew?”

Greetings, in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

416951_10152196717220147_1724870670_n

 to ALL who all have taken, & may take some time to check out these posts that give an insight to my Ras Tafari perspective along with those I have pulled information, historical discussion(fact & fiction) from, I hope that this brings about an understanding that wasn’t present before.  Also, to those who may have shunned or written off those who may sight Ras Tafari adherence as unorthodox to certain principles; I make my own sincere case in hopes that the reasons for those who dismiss Ras Tafari adherents, are explained in a clearer sense now.  This is a credo of mine that I present, to the best of my ability, the things that have taken hold in my discernment over a period of time that have come to be proved in actuality factual.  For others I would hope that the postings that I dispense here are “weighed on a scale” or so to speak; because, I would rather people know & stand on truth in its literal sense as opposed to its relevant sense.  I’m not providing these thoughts to showcase a mountain of knowledge to set myself above anyone.  But, I do intend to present the development of one who acknowledges the Ras Tafari principles, the way of life, & the head of the order: the King of Kings of Ethiopia, as the shining example of humanity.

FORWARD!!!

So, if one was a Ras Tafari, it is certain that many questions have come from many directions as to what they do, what they see as truth(seeing as how truth has become very elusive, in a relevancy state), & how the goals of Ras Tafari fit into the scope of the world today.

Many discoveries, & cultural ties, but very few identifiable materials have made the Ras Tafari presence relevant to the dynamics of its disposition in mainstream media. Wherein, a number of inquiries about what or why, people of Ras Tafari are doing certain things in this day in age come about.  For instance;

{ SO WHY DO RASTAS USE/HAVE JEWISH STARS-(THE STAR OF DAVID)? }…

Bob & Rita Marley's beautiful daughter; Cedella Marley wearing what is known as the Star of David.

Bob & Rita Marley‘s beautiful daughter; Cedella Marley wearing what is known as the Star of David. [More correctly the Shield of Jacob/Star of Jacob according to Numb. 24:17 (KJV)]

-one/third of the Ras Tafari founders, proudly sporting an array of what seems to be Moorish garbs, with Ethiopian Bandera colors adorning his neck; along with a cross & Magen David/cross fusion. (a symbol very prevalent from the East)

one/fourth of the Ras Tafari founders, proudly sporting an array of what seems to be Moorish garb, with the Ethiopian Bandera colors adorning his neck; along with a cross & Magen David/cross fusion. (a symbol very prevalent from the East)

This Imperial Coat of Arms holds the story of the Judaism & Christianity's acceptance into Ethiopia, through its vivid symbolism. (The Conquering Lion of Judah, carrying the banner with the Cross: Angel(left) holding the sword of truth & scales of justice: Angel(right) holding the Imperial scepture: covered by a red mantle with the Imperial Crown.

This Imperial Coat of Arms holds the story of the Judaism & Christianity‘s acceptance into Ethiopia, through its vivid symbolism. (The Conquering Lion of Judah, carrying the banner with the Cross: Angel(left) holding the sword of truth & scales of justice: Angel(right) holding the Imperial sceptre: covered by a red mantle with the Imperial Crown.

this variation includes the three major religions that reside in Ethiopia: Judaism, Christianity & Islam.

this variation includes the three Abrahamic  religions that reside in Ethiopia: Judaism (symbolized in the Shield/Star of Jacob), Christianity (symbolized in the Cross) & Islam (symbolized in the crescent Moon).

{ SO RASTA, ARE YOU JEWISH? }

{ ARE YOU ORTHODOX? }_these question may arise out of, referring to specific hats & other material I’ve (or maybe others) worn in public, that may resemble Orthodox Judaic practices.

So, I came across a number of very interesting posts & messages some time ago that caught my attention about Ras Tafari & its affinity to a Hebrew concept.  Ras Tafari is already known for their connections to Christianity from an Ethiopic root, which can easily extend to Africa in a continental scope.  Also, seeing as how they revere an African monarch, who reigned over a Christian kingdom.  But with Christianity being known in the world as a sort of, by-product of the Hebrew faith, many people have questioned the Ras Tafari ability to “connect-the-dots” (or so to speak) to a possible Hebrew or Jewish connection.

http://daghettotymz.com/current/rasjew/rasjew.html

The above link was probably one of the most critical, but enlightening write-ups I’ve seen about Ras Tafari, from a writer outside of any Ras Tafari ideology or practice.

…this article was written by M’Bwebe Ishangi, who has produced controversial, but extremely intriguing pieces.  Its obvious that the research put into to the projects completed and those to come have inspired this individual to create an atmosphere for the development of spreading African history, and cultural awareness which is distorted among the world educational platform….

I encourage any of you, who are really seeking to learn more about African history aside from what any of you may or may not have received from your schooling to check out the works of this site.  It will surely spark something in you to engage in more prolific works.

(such as this, I, personally honor the works of the above platform in media for producing the critical thinking of the masses of people)

I will admit that some of the points made in this article were elaborately drawn-out conclusions, but without fact for a few of them (maybe it was intentional to spark thought) ; for example, the suggested rape of the Queen of Sheba by King Solomon…surely controversial, & a possibility with the story told to one, who may have heard it only a few times, & not in its entirety.  But, in the article the mentioning of the only other account of the story of the Queen of Sheba & King Solomon outside Scriptural references (taking in account the Holy Bible & Holy Qu’ran) was that of the Ethiopian manuscripts of the Kebra Nagast[ከብረ ነገስት], or translated by E.A.W. Budge from the Ge’ez language of the ancient Ethiopic to English as the “the Glory of the Kings;” this discovered literature makes mention of the Queen of Sheba’s visit to Jerusalem from an entirely different perspective from that of the Bible or Qu’ran.  The writer makes an educated assumption but for a Ras Tafari who was too curious about the story, myself, I couldn’t take this account of it seriously for this point (suggested rape) considering the author of this challenging article hasn’t read from the translated work of Budge, nor the ancient story in its original language.  So, like I mentioned earlier in this post it can be suggested that the writer of the above controversial and thought provoking article could indeed have had the intention of sparking interest into a more critical and self searching appeal to the masses; instead of taking everything that is put out by mas media forms for “face-value.” (Which I commend, wholeheartedly)

Makeda_sheba's travels to israel

sheba.solomon

Kebra_Nagast

Song Of Songs 1:5"...black but comely..."THE QUEEN OF THE SOUTH. THE EMPRESS OF AXUM(Aksum). THE QUEEN OF SHEBA(Saba).

Mak’ida(ማክዳ)
מלכת שבא(Malkat Sheba)
ንግሥተ ሳባ(Nigist Saba)
ملكة سبأ‎(Malikat Saba)
Song Of Songs 1:5
“…black but comely…”
Matthew 12:42 & Luke 11:31
THE QUEEN OF THE SOUTH
II Kings 10
THE QUEEN OF SHEBA
EMPRESS OF AXUM:
ruler of Ethiopia and Yemen (ruled 1005-955 BC)

&, to think that the “Glory of Kings,” speaking of the great Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia could possibly be put on the record as the first king of Ethiopia & Israel; ruling simultaneously, as a bastard child, would surely be “one for the books,” but of course, this is most certainly not so. Though, Solomon was most cunning in his pursuit of the beautiful Queen of Sheba, he was surely smitten by her & though she was wary of her ancient customary traditions, & voiced them to Solomon; she was also just as drawn to him as he was to her. Hence, the granting of lands in Solomon’s dominion were given to Sheba, along with many treasures, too much more to name.  Finally the birth of a son who would renew the kingdom of Israel in Ethiopia would come.  This explanation that I’m bringing forth to clarify the story of the happenings between Solomon & Sheba is not to discredit the writings of anyone, especially this well-written article by M’Bwele Ishangi who has clearly produced works extensive in African history, but to bring about a need to go deeper into the story & traditions that brought about the Ras Tafari understanding of their roots as Israelites, as well as, Ethiopians(Africans).  Not to forget that, more & more discoveries of literature, excavations & so much more are still being discovered to give more validity to the not only the relationship that Sheba & Solomon shared but, the lineage that sprung forth from it.

http://nazret.com/blog/index.php/2012/06/21/ethiopia-dna-clues-to-queen-of-sheba-tale

http://ees.kuleuven.be/water2011/excursions/images/index.html?sld=sheba

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1082648.stm

Mar'ib Dam inscription in Yemen(Saba)

writing on artifacts mirror the writing in Yemen, but these were found in a Temple in Yeha; Northern Ethiopian.

writing on artifacts mirror the writing in Yemen, but these were found in a Temple in Yeha; Northern Ethiopia.

shebahead

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/cultures/sheba_01.shtml

Messianic Jews of the Aksumite kingdom. Flag dates back to possible the 1st century AD.

Messianic Jews of the Aksumite kingdom. Flag dates back to possible the 1st century AD.

Again, I commend Mr. Ishangi for his proposed questions & challenges to the legitimacy of the “Jewish” roots of Ras Tafari. Only the diligent & disciplined need to engage in a civil & mature discussion on topics as these. (& To the daghettotymz establishment) I appreciate the concern & attention to Ras Tafari place in history.

Shalom/Selam*

[I greet the workers of the Da Ghetto Tymz estbl. in “PEACE”]

 b'nei leKHem

There are many more who have brought up the inquiries of Hebraic culture within Ras Tafari and what people know as Black people of today across the globe. The dissemination of the relationships between Black people and Jewish people has had many examinations from even many more different angles and viewpoints.  These ideas should be explored, as well; for instance, the encompassing work of the Nation of Islam‘s Most Honourable Minister Louis Farrakhan, works; (peace be upon him)*

Min. Louis Farrakhan with (Nation of Islam's) literary work; "The Secret Relationship Between Blacks & Jews Vol. 1 & 2"

Min. Louis Farrakhan with (Nation of Islam‘s) literary work; “The Secret Relationship Between Blacks & Jews Vol. 1 & 2

srbj1

srbj

http://store.finalcall.com/ProductDetails.asp?ProductCode=BK+SECRET

Vol 1; above link

http://store.finalcall.com/ProductDetails.asp?ProductCode=BK+SECRET+II

Vol 2; above link

This literary goes into explaining the Jewish people’s role in the lives of Black peoples(if you please), negatively & positively. Bringing details about very sensitive subjects immersed in fact.  So without giving away anymore detail & derailing any of you from checking out the work.  I’ll leave the rest up to your research & curiosity.

In a quest of soul searching, & self-identification, daughter of Alice Walker & Mel Levanthal; Rebecca Levanthal Walker gives her story in an outlook of her life.

In a quest of soul searching, & self-identification, daughter of Alice Walker & Mel Levanthal; Rebecca Levanthal Walker gives her story in an outlook of her life.

http://www.racetimeplace.com/ugrr/slavelawsofvirginiasince1705.htm

Why Jews Supported Black Causes_Interview with Kevin MacDonald, PhD.

http://www.realjewnews.com/?p=472

a very detailed & telling literary work of the relationship Black people in America & Jewish people shared during turbulent times.

a very detailed & telling literary work of the relationship Black people in America & Jewish people shared during turbulent times.

[ HEBREW OR SO-CALLED NEGRO? ]

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NxdraywgedY

How Jews Became White Folks by Karen Brodkin

http://realhistoryww.com/world_history/ancient/Misc/Jesus/Jesus.htm

9780195333565

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9J2yX-nEejY

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qhTlJA4e6fw

Blair Underwood in the "The Second Coming". find it very interesting that Mr. Underwood supposedly has an Ebo/Igbo heritage, as well & presents the depiction of Christ. (PRAY THAT THE MOST BLESSES HIM, FOR HIS COURAGE TO SPEAK DEEPLY WITH HIS ART)

Blair Underwood in the “The Second Coming”. find it very interesting that Mr. Underwood supposedly has an Ebo/Igbo heritage, as well & presents the depiction of Christ. (PRAY THAT THE MOST BLESSES HIM, FOR HIS COURAGE TO SPEAK DEEPLY WITH HIS ART)

 

41F7la7xHfL

So, to bring about an understanding of what people see in the Ras Tafarian culture, symbolism, & such, is simply self-expression of lineage, history, & the regeneration of identification. The usage of certain symbols in Jewish folklore and tradition come from specific teachings of the authors the Masoretic texts of the Torah & Talmud. (the Masoretes; 7th-10th century CE)בעלי המסורה -Ba’ali HaMasorah

[ Hip-Hop Artist/Rapper Jay Electronica gives his take on Jewish history ]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M8B7zaVMG2k

The question about those who are considered black & have an affinity to things categorized as “Jewish,” should not be so over bearing to the point of overly stressed investigation. As if, there is to be something to be found faulty about, because possibly there could be no way that anyone could be “black” & Jewish at the same time without intermarriage being the precursor. (take, for instance, the continuous speculation of hip hop artist “Shyne” Jamal Barrow-Moses Levy( מושח בן לוי -Moshe ben Levy ) : who just so happens to be not only Ethiopian and Belizean, in descent, but Jewish, as well. Though he has had his journey in hardships, pain & trevail, I myself, wonder, if the consistent lack of acceptance weighs more on him. (like the troubles the Beta Israel-Ethiopian Jews have faced, since their arrival in the State of Israel, which has its congruency to the plight of Blacks in America) His Jewish ancestry is constantly on a probationary status among many people, who just don’t seem to accept it. Even with all of this taking its toll, he strives to present himself a man of honesty, and integrity, which he should be commended for.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O-FbGBnXcDE

youtube= http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gGxHW-Ua77I

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gGxHW-Ua77I

Now, I know that I have taken you all through alot, but to fully understand the message I’am trying to convey all boils down to this, one cannot know where there are going until they know where they’ve been.  In learning where an individuals’ roots lie, one can begin to start carving out their own destiny, making decisions based upon their own understanding of their background. (ie. strengths & weaknesses)  In the case of the Ras Tafari; I don’t believe I could say more than they already have about how they feel about their culture, history, & heritage.  “The proof is clearly in the pudding!”(proverbially)  But, in all seriousness to question the revelations of the early Ras Tafari principles & those generations who were brought up or came into the teachings of the same.  To this extent of overbearing discontent, this type of person would have to question or tackle a mountain of information; not to mention their own beliefs, to the point of discrediting themselves.

We must also take into account that before there was a Jewish nation, there was a Jewish tribe, that tribe was apart of the Hebrew/Israelite nation. The establishment of the tribes of Israel doesn’t come until after Jacob, the son of Isaac, has 12-twelve sons. These twelve would be the progenitors of the tribes of Israel. (Genesis 29:32 – 35:18)

So, to answer the curious questions of inquiries I’ve received & probably many others have as well,…the Ras Tafari usage of things known as “Jewish” in the world today have roots.  Those roots the Ras Tafarians, as well as I, find & prescribe to, have discovered them to be very close to us, ancestrally…

As far as, being a KHassid/Hasidic…that would be up to the Most High decide seeing as that, ALMIGHTY GOD is the ultimate judge of this world and the world to come.  While I commend the Hasidic movements of European Jews, who have taken hold to the old traditions of the Hebrews, & show themselves “trees of good fruit” in their works; I find that KHassid-חסד which means “piety”, “kindness”, “loving”, “charity”, “benevolent”, & “favor” are things that ALL people should subscribe to be.  So to call myself a Hasid/KHassid, is something I can only train myself in for my creator to see me as.  But, in being Hebrew, an Israelite, & of the Tribe of Yihuda(Judah), I cannot escape.  I can choose the way I live my life, but not the family I’am born into.

ሰላም-(selam)

שלןם-(shalom)

PEACE!!!

ዮሓንስ ወልደ ዓማኑኤል

יוחנן בן- עמנואל