Tag Archives: Mizrachi

✡ Tisha B’Ab – תשעה באב – (Ninth [9th] of the month of Ab) ✡

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

This is another one of the many interpretations of the Scriptures from the light of Ras Tafari by, I, Lidj Yefdi (pronounced Lij, Yef-dee).

I welcome you all to yet another post here at Ras Tafari Renaissance.   I also thank everyone who has supported the efforts put forth here.  I, Lidj Yefdi, on behalf of Ras Tafari Renaissance, offer the utmost gratitude.

Today, we as Ras Tafari should learn from the happenings of this day in history.  On the Hebraic/Jewish Calendar, today marks the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem & the scattering of the Hebrew people among many other nations.  The Romans, under Titus(Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus) took Jerusalem after a rebellion of the Hebrew people. (70 AD)

Destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem _ painting by James J. Tissot

Destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem _ painting by James J. Tissot

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/110-ab-ninth-day-of

This day is usually set aside by tradition for fasting and mourning, to commemorate the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple by the Chaldeans (586 B.C.) and by the Romans (70); a movable fast falling approximately in the beginning of August of the Gregorian calendar.   II Kings 25: 8, 9;  it is stated that the Temple was burned on the seventh day of the fifth Hebrew month.  Scholars and others note that the tenth day of the fifth month is assigned as the date that comes to a congruent conclusion.  In connection with the fall of Jerusalem there are at least, three other fast-days were established at the same time as the Ninth Day of Ab: these were the Tenth of Tebet, when the siege began; the Seventeenth of Tammuz, when the first breach was made in the wall;

Tisha B'ab [temple destruction by the romans] (70A.D.)

The Book of Lamentations, mourns the destructions of the Temple, & moreover the whole of Jerusalem.  Modern Ashkenazic Jews, read what is called the Kinnot.  The Kinnot, traditionally calls to remembrance the destruction of the 1st & 2nd Temple, as well as the Crusades and the Holocaust.

Tisha Bab - (Siege_of_Jerusalem Map 70 CE[AD])2

(evening)

Ex. 32: 11-14  ;  Ex. 34: 1-10

Isa. 55: 6- 56:8  ;  Lamentations

Mat. 23: 16-23  ;  Mat. 24: 1,2

“…those who mourn for Jerusalem…”

These events led to the disorientation of the Hebrew people, as a whole, but only came because of their disobedience to the Laws, God had for Israel. (ie. idols, corruption-spiritually and morally…)

Readings: for Tisha B’Ab

(morning) –

Deut. 4: 25-40  ; Jer. 8: 13- 9:23

Mat. 3: 11-17

http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/149580/jewish/The-Laws-of-Mourning.htm

Stones excavated from the Western Wall at Jerusalem _ ref. Matt 24: 2; Mark 13: 2; Luke 21: 6

Stones excavated from the Western Wall at Jerusalem _ ref. Matt 24: 2; Mark 13: 2; Luke 21: 6

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Jerusalem_%2870%29

Tisha B'ab flight into (70A.D.-Africa)

*Notes

The questions of the authenticity of certain Jewish/Hebrew people has been a very intricate question, even for those who seem to be the learned in the Hebraic Laws, history & Torah(or the Scriptures); but Ras Tafari Renaissance seeks to aid in the proper education and dissemination of the truth about topics within our reach, by JAH(God)’s grace.

…with that said…

COULD THE DESTRUCTION/SIEGE OF THE TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM, BE A PRECURSOR TO THE VALIDITY IN HISTORY AND FACT, OF HEBRAIC PEOPLES OUTSIDE OF THE MAINSTREAM?

1) Lemba people in South Africa – Malawi – Zimbabwe(respectively)

2) Mizhrahi Jews of Baghdad-Iraqi/Persia-Iranian/India – various other lands(respectively) – [not disregarding the claims of the Indian Jews(Hebrews), but including their numbers within the Mizrahi(Eastern)]

3) Moroccan Jews (most of Spanish/Berber/Iberian descent)

4) Ebo/ Igbo people – Nigerian Jews (some of Moroccan descent)

5) Sephardim= Tingus-African/Spanish/ Moroccan Jews & their descendants

6) Abayudaya people = Uganda

7) Bilad el-Soudan= West African Jews/ Hebrews – various countries (respectively) including the Whydah (Ouidah), Cameroonian (Beth Yeshuroun) & Biafra

8) Beta Israel/ Ethiopian Jews – Falashmura – Qimant

9) Yemenite Jews/Himyarite Hebrews

10) Jews/ Hebrews of Timbuktu (Ghana/Songhai/Mali/Zackor)

11) Cape Verdean/Guinea-Bissauwian = Portuguese/Berber-Jews (IFS Jews)

12) Congolese Jews (Baluba Jews)

13) WaTutsi Jews of Havilah (Rwanda)

14) Kasuku-Kenyan Jews

15) Afro-Austroneasian Jews of Madagascar

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✡ Pūrïm – פּוּרִים ✡

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

Seasons Greetings to you all once again!  This is Lidj Yefdi, bringing you, yet another post from Ras Tafari Renaissance. I sincerely appreciate all of the positive vibes and feedback I’ve received from those who have reasoned & spoken well of the postings here. MAY JAH DELIVER MY GRATITUDE & BLESS YOU ALL EXCEEDINGLY!

So, today in Jerusalem and wherever there are adherents to Hebrew/Jewish traditions and such are celebrated the end of Purim – פּוּרִים .

Readings:

Exodus 32:11 – 14; chpt. 34:1 -10

Iasiah 55:6 – 56:8

Hosea 14: 2 – 10

Micah 7: 18 – 20

HEBREW CALENDAR2

Purim, is the celebration of the deliverance of the Jews(Hebrews) that were under the rule of the Persian Empire.

[SIDE-NOTE] FLASH FORWARD, in Scripture the Persian Empire(or otherwise known to be the “Medes,” were apart the four kingdoms prophecy, which Nebuchadnezzer’s dream, was interpreted by Daniel, for him by way of God’s revealing).

[Daniel chpt. 2; Daniel chpt. 7]

The Persian Empire came after the Babylonian Captivity.

Nebuchadnezzar-statue2

The Jews (or the Hebrews) in Persia were freed from the hand of Haman, who had gained favor in the sight of the king Ahasuerus(whom is also accounted for as being Xerxes I). No, Xerxes I, is not the Persian king of the movie “300” dealing with the Spartans. THAT WAS PURE HOLLYWOOD ENTERTAINMENT; THIS IS HISTORICAL FACT. Xerxes, was the king of Persia whom gave favor to Haman the Agagite. But loved deeply, Esther, whom was the daughter of Mordecai (mo, the Jew.

achaedyn

Mordecai, instructed (Hadassah)/”Esther” to conceal her heritage from the king and all of his court, for she had been taken along with many other young women to be suited for the king of Persia, because he put away Vashti, from being queen. But upon the conflict of Mordecai vs. Haman; Haman sought to destroy ALL the Jews in Persia. Silver was the payment of Haman to the king to destroy the Jews(Hebrews), young old, men, women and children.

[Esther 2: 7- 3:15]

MAP_PERSIA

Vashti, refused the king’s request to appear before the king & his guests, which were nobles and princes throughout Persia and Media.

[Esther 1(entire Chpt)]

But, unknowingly Hadassah(Eshter), was of the people of Jews(Hebrews) by way of her adoption by Mordecai, who reverenced not Haman, as the king had wanted for those of the kingdom in Persia and Media.

In the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar – אֲדָר, on its thirteenth day … on the day that the enemies of the Jews were expected to prevail over them, it was turned about: the Jews prevailed over their adversaries.

[Esther 9:1]

Mordecai bowed not to Haman (Ta'anit Esther - Shushan Purim)

Mordecai bowed not to Haman (Ta’anit Esther – Shushan Purim)

 

I&I would also like to give much, much thanks to the Lion of Judah Society, Inc., organization for their interpretation of Scriptures, historical events, & Ras Tafari dissemination of Ethiopian heritage in Africa, as well as, the diaspora. Here, I would like for you all to check out & consider the facts put forth here. Research, study & come to your own conclusions about the story of Hadassah(Esther), the Queen.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNal4U1fgTI

queen esther - hadassah - aster

So, all-in-all to the Daughters of Zion, which I named this [(Original)] posting,…which I’am sure many of you are questioning that move…Well, its very simple! Women, in society are many times are thought to be pushed to the backside of many important events, and happenings in this world we see today, but, clearly even in antiquity, women held power and influence that they, themselves, sometimes are unable to recognize. &, in this case the power to save millions to the billions from despair.  So, to the Daughters, remember that with this type of blessing comes a great deal of responsibility. Handle it with care, my sistren.

www-St-Takla-org--Bible-17Est06--10-12-Haman-and-Mordecai

But, for the Daughters of Zion, as well as, the Sons, the Scriptures clearly state that we are to remember Purim for all generations, and to keep them in writing.

[Esther 9:27-28]

Not to mention being the other halves of the givers of life, nourishment, sustainability…and out right, “being the first teachers of human civilization (more specifically, every child) that comes to this world” _quoted from El Hajj Malik El Shabazz(Malcolm X) by way of the Most Honorable Elijah Muhammad. Sisters, mothers, daughters and women of our families the message you give to the child(children) they will give to the world. So please, consider your illustrious position in the cosmology of this existence. & while we as Ras Tafari, Ethiopians, Hebrews, & Israelites, celebrate the essence of woman in the example of Queen Esther; I certainly hope, that the men will acknowledge the counterpart that was created to be the companion of ours.

הֲדַסָּה - Hadassah - Esther.Aster

THE STORY OF HADASSAH(ESTHER) THE QUEEN

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xpGaDOfwty4

for more information on Purim & Jews(Hebrews) of Iran-Persia; check out these pages:

Shalom/Selam

✡ Tisha B’Ab – תשעה באב – (Ninth [9th] of the month of Ab) ✡

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

This is another one of the many interpretations of the Scriptures from the light of Ras Tafari by, I, Lidj Yefdi (pronounced Lij, Yef-dee).

I welcome you all to yet another post here at Ras Tafari Renaissance.   I also thank everyone who has supported the efforts put forth here.  I, Lidj Yefdi, on behalf of Ras Tafari Renaissance, offer the utmost gratitude.

Today, we as Ras Tafari should learn from the happenings of this day in history.  On the Hebraic/Jewish Calendar, today marks the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem & the scattering of the Hebrew people among many other nations.  The Romans, under Titus(Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus) took Jerusalem after a rebellion of the Hebrew people. (70 AD)

Destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem _ painting by James J. Tissot

Destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem _ painting by James J. Tissot

http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/110-ab-ninth-day-of

This day is usually set aside by tradition for fasting and mourning, to commemorate the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple by the Chaldeans (586 B.C.) and by the Romans (70); a movable fast falling approximately in the beginning of August of the Gregorian calendar.   II Kings 25: 8, 9;  it is stated that the Temple was burned on the seventh day of the fifth Hebrew month.  Scholars and others note that the tenth day of the fifth month is assigned as the date that comes to a congruent conclusion.  In connection with the fall of Jerusalem there are at least, three other fast-days were established at the same time as the Ninth Day of Ab: these were the Tenth of Tebet, when the siege began; the Seventeenth of Tammuz, when the first breach was made in the wall;

Tisha B'ab [temple destruction by the romans] (70A.D.)

The Book of Lamentations, mourns the destructions of the Temple, & moreover the whole of Jerusalem.  Modern Ashkenazic Jews, read what is called the Kinnot.  The Kinnot, traditionally calls to remembrance the destruction of the 1st & 2nd Temple, as well as the Crusades and the Holocaust.

Tisha Bab - (Siege_of_Jerusalem Map 70 CE[AD])2

(evening)

Ex. 32: 11-14  ;  Ex. 34: 1-10

Isa. 55: 6- 56:8  ;  Lamentations

Mat. 23: 16-23  ;  Mat. 24: 1,2

“…those who mourn for Jerusalem…”

These events led to the disorientation of the Hebrew people, as a whole, but only came because of their disobedience to the Laws, God had for Israel. (ie. idols, corruption-spiritually and morally…)

Readings: for Tisha B’ab

(morning) –

Deut. 4: 25-40  ; Jer. 8: 13- 9:23

Mat. 3: 11-17

http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/149580/jewish/The-Laws-of-Mourning.htm

Stones excavated from the Western Wall at Jerusalem _ ref. Matt 24: 2; Mark 13: 2; Luke 21: 6

Stones excavated from the Western Wall at Jerusalem _ ref. Matt 24: 2; Mark 13: 2; Luke 21: 6

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Jerusalem_%2870%29

Tisha B'ab flight into (70A.D.-Africa)

*Notes

The questions of the authenticity of certain Jewish/Hebrew people has been a very intricate question, even for those who seem to be the learned in the Hebraic Laws, history & Torah(or the Scriptures); but Ras Tafari Renaissance seeks to aid in the proper education and dissemination of the truth about topics within our reach, by JAH(God)’s grace.

…with that said…

COULD THE DESTRUCTION/SIEGE OF THE TEMPLE OF JERUSALEM, BE A PRECURSOR TO THE VALIDITY IN HISTORY AND FACT, OF HEBRAIC PEOPLES OUTSIDE OF THE MAINSTREAM?

1) Lemba people in South Africa – Malawi – Zimbabwe(respectively)

2) Mizhrahi Jews of Persia/Iran/India – various other lands(respectively) – [not disregarding the claims of the Indian Jews(Hebrews), but including their numbers within the Mizrahi(Eastern)]

3) Moroccan Jews (most of Spanish/Berber/Iberian descent)

4) Ebo/ Igbo people – Nigerian Jews (some of Moroccan descent)

5) Sephardim– Spanish/ Moroccan Jews & their descendants

6) Abayudaya people – Uganda

7) Bilad el-Soudan- West African Jews/ Hebrews – various countries (respectively) including the Whydah (Ouidah) & Biafra

8) Beta Israel/ Ethiopian Jews – Falashmura – Qimant

9) Yemenite Jews/Himyarite Hebrews

10) Jews/ Hebrews of Timbuktu (Ghana/Songhai/Mali)

✡ Pūrïm – פּוּרִים ✡

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

RRR - prototype (2015-16)

Seasons Greetings to you all once again!  This is Lidj Yefdi, bringing you, yet another post from Ras Tafari Renaissance. I sincerely appreciate all of the positive vibes and feedback I’ve received from those who have reasoned & spoken well of the postings here. MAY JAH DELIVER MY GRATITUDE & BLESS YOU ALL EXCEEDINGLY!

So, today in Jerusalem and wherever there are adherents to Hebrew/Jewish traditions and such are celebrated the end of Purim – פּוּרִים .

Readings:

Exodus 32:11 – 14; chpt. 34:1 -10

Iasiah 55:6 – 56:8

Hosea 14: 2 – 10

Micah 7: 18 – 20

HEBREW CALENDAR2

Purim, is the celebration of the deliverance of the Jews(Hebrews) that were under the rule of the Persian Empire.

[SIDE-NOTE] FLASH FORWARD, in Scripture the Persian Empire(or otherwise known to be the “Medes,” were apart the four kingdoms prophecy, which Nebuchadnezzer’s dream, was interpreted by Daniel, for him by way of God’s revealing).

[Daniel chpt. 2; Daniel chpt. 7]

The Persian Empire came after the Babylonian Captivity.

Nebuchadnezzar-statue2

The Jews (or the Hebrews) in Persia were freed from the hand of Haman, who had gained favor in the sight of the king Ahasuerus(whom is also accounted for as being Xerxes I). No, Xerxes I, is not the Persian king of the movie “300” dealing with the Spartans. THAT WAS PURE HOLLYWOOD ENTERTAINMENT; THIS IS HISTORICAL FACT. Xerxes, was the king of Persia whom gave favor to Haman the Agagite. But loved deeply, Esther, whom was the daughter of Mordecai (mo, the Jew.

achaedyn

Mordecai, instructed (Hadassah)/”Esther” to conceal her heritage from the king and all of his court, for she had been taken along with many other young women to be suited for the king of Persia, because he put away Vashti, from being queen. But upon the conflict of Mordecai vs. Haman; Haman sought to destroy ALL the Jews in Persia. Silver was the payment of Haman to the king to destroy the Jews(Hebrews), young old, men, women and children.

[Esther 2: 7- 3:15]

MAP_PERSIA

Vashti, refused the king’s request to appear before the king & his guests, which were nobles and princes throughout Persia and Media.

[Esther 1(entire Chpt)]

But, unknowingly Hadassah(Eshter), was of the people of Jews(Hebrews) by way of her adoption by Mordecai, who reverenced not Haman, as the king had wanted for those of the kingdom in Persia and Media.

In the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar – אֲדָר, on its thirteenth day … on the day that the enemies of the Jews were expected to prevail over them, it was turned about: the Jews prevailed over their adversaries.

[Esther 9:1]

Mordecai bowed not to Haman (Ta'anit Esther - Shushan Purim)

Mordecai bowed not to Haman (Ta’anit Esther – Shushan Purim)

 

I&I would also like to give much, much thanks to the Lion of Judah Society, Inc., organization for their interpretation of Scriptures, historical events, & Ras Tafari dissemination of Ethiopian heritage in Africa, as well as, the diaspora. Here, I would like for you all to check out & consider the facts put forth here. Research, study & come to your own conclusions about the story of Hadassah(Esther), the Queen.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNal4U1fgTI

queen esther - hadassah - aster

So, all-in-all to the Daughters of Zion, which I named this [(Original)] posting,…which I’am sure many of you are questioning that move…Well, its very simple! Women, in society are many times are thought to be pushed to the backside of many important events, and happenings in this world we see today, but, clearly even in antiquity, women held power and influence that they, themselves, sometimes are unable to recognize. &, in this case the power to save millions to the billions from despair.  So, to the Daughters, remember that with this type of blessing comes a great deal of responsibility. Handle it with care, my sistren.

www-St-Takla-org--Bible-17Est06--10-12-Haman-and-Mordecai

But, for the Daughters of Zion, as well as, the Sons, the Scriptures clearly state that we are to remember Purim for all generations, and to keep them in writing.

[Esther 9:27-28]

Not to mention being the other halves of the givers of life, nourishment, sustainability…and out right, “being the first teachers of human civilization (more specifically, every child) that comes to this world” _quoted from El Hajj Malik El Shabazz(Malcolm X) by way of the Most Honorable Elijah Muhammad. Sisters, mothers, daughters and women of our families the message you give to the child(children) they will give to the world. So please, consider your illustrious position in the cosmology of this existence. & while we as Ras Tafari, Ethiopians, Hebrews, & Israelites, celebrate the essence of woman in the example of Queen Esther; I certainly hope, that the men will acknowledge the counterpart that was created to be the companion of ours.

הֲדַסָּה - Hadassah - Esther.Aster

THE STORY OF HADASSAH(ESTHER) THE QUEEN

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xpGaDOfwty4

for more information on Purim & Jews(Hebrews) of Iran-Persia; check out these pages:

Shalom/Selam

✡ Purim-פּוּרִים ✡

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

432_417386508351927_1732265329_n

This is Lidj Yefdi, bringin you, yet another post from Ras Tafari Renaissance. I sincerely appreciate all of the positive vibes and feedback I’ve received from those who have reasoned & spoken well of the postings here. MAY JAH DELIVER MY GRATITUDE & BLESS YOU ALL EXCEEDINGLY!

So, today in Jerusalem and wherever there are adherents to Hebrew/Jewish traditions and such are celebrated the end of Purim-פּוּרִים .

HEBREW CALENDAR2

Purim, is the celebration of the deliverance of the Jews that were under the rule of the Persian Empire. [SIDE-NOTE] FLASH FORWARD, in Scripture the Persian Empire(or otherwise known to be the Medes, were apart the four kingdoms prophecy, which Nebuchadnezzer’s dream, was interpreted by Daniel, for him by way of God’s revealing).

The Persian Empire came after the Babylonian Captivity.

Nebuchadnezzar-statue2

The Jews (or the Hebrews) in Persia were freed from the hand of Haman, who had gained favor in the sight of the king Ahasuerus(whom is also accounted for as being Xerxes I). No, Xerxes I, is not the Persian king of the movie “300” dealing with the Spartans. THAT WAS PURE HOLLYWOOD ENTERTAINMENT; THIS IS HISTORICAL FACT. Xerxes, was the king of Persia whom gave favor to Haman the Agagite. But loved deeply, Esther, whom was the daughter of Mordecai (mo, the Jew.

achaedyn

Mordecai, instructed Esther to conceal her heritage from the king and all of his court, for she had been taken along with many other young women to be suited for the king of Persia, because he put away Vashti, from being queen. But upon the conflict of Mordecai vs. Haman; Haman sought to destroy ALL the Jews in Persia. Silver was the payment of Haman to the king to destroy the Jews, young old, men, women and children.

[Esther 2: 7- 3:15]

MAP_PERSIA

Vashti, refused the king’s request to appear before the king & his guests, which were nobles and princes throughout Persia and Media. [Esther 1(entire Chpt)]

But, unknowingly Hadassah(Eshter), was of the people of Jews(Hebrews) by way of her adoption by Mordecai, who reverenced not Haman, as the king had wanted for those of the kingdom in Persia and Media.

In the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar, on its thirteenth day … on the day that the enemies of the Jews were expected to prevail over them, it was turned about: the Jews prevailed over their adversaries. [Esther 9:1]

queen esther (hadassah) - Aster

THE STORY OF HADASSAH(ESTHER) THE QUEEN

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xpGaDOfwty4

I&I would also like to give much, much thanks to the Lion of Judah Society, Inc., organization for their interpretation of Scriptures, historical events, & Ras Tafari dissemination of Ethiopian heritage in Africa, as well as, the diaspora. Here, I would like for you all to check out & consider the facts put forth here. Research, study & come to your own conclusions about the story of Hadassah(Esther) the Queen.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNal4U1fgTI

queen esther - hadassah - aster

So, all-in-all to the Daughters of Zion, which I named this [(Original)] posting,…which I’am sure many of you are questioning that move…Well, its very simple! Women in society are many times are thought to be pushed to the backside of many important events, and happenings in this world we see today, but, clearly even in antiquity, women held power and influence that they, themselves, sometimes are unable to recognize. &, in this case the power to save millions to the billions from despair.  So, to the Daughters, remember that with this type of blessing comes a gret deal of responsibility. Handle it with care, my sistren.

www-St-Takla-org--Bible-17Est06--10-12-Haman-and-Mordecai

But, for the Daughters of Zion, as well as, the Sons, the Scriptures clearly state that we are to remember Purim for all generations, and to keep them in writing.

[Esther 9:27-28]

Not to mention being the givers of life, nourishment, sustainability…and out right, “being the first teachers of human civilization(or every child) that comes to this world” _quoted from El Hajj Malik El Shabazz(Malcolm X) by way of the Most Honorable Elijah Muhammad. Sisters, mothers, daughters and women of our families the message you give to the child(children) they will give to the world. So please consider your illustrious position in the cosmology of this existence. & while we as Ras Tafari, Ethiopians, Hebrews, & Israelites, celebrate the essence of woman in the example of Queen Esther; I certainly hope, that the men will acknowledge the counterpart that was created to be the companion of ours.

for more information on Purim; check out these pages:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purim

http://www.sichosinenglish.org/cgi-bin/calendar?holiday=auto

KHag Purim ShmeKH’=Greeting for Purim

חג פורים שמח

Shalom/Selam