So Rasta, Tell Me; “Are You A Mason(Freemason)” part 4

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellasie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,


So, we continue with this series of lines drawn between Ras Tafari and Freemasonry.

Now, we have come to the fourth installment of this sure to be controversial series.

In the third installment of this series we traced the theories of the origins of Freemasonry through the Knights Templar, along with influence of the Crusades.  The so-called “discovery of the New World,” and the happenings in Europe and also the rest of the world  Now, we will continue on in drawing the lines between Freemasonry & Ras Tafari.


So, if you haven’t heard,…there has lately been comparisons, and speculations of Ras Tafari having a “Freemasonic influence.”  These inquiries have even brought about the questioning and accusations of Ras Tafari, “H.I.M.self” being a member of the Freemasons, along with those who have involved themselves in the movement which sprung out to become the most dynamic of this time.( Ras Tafari movement)

Now, the controversy on this issue runs deep,….mainly because at Ras Tafari’s roots, its initiators were at one time apart of masonic lodges, but not in the sense of today’s mainstream Freemasonry.(we’ll touch on this later in the presentation.)  Accreditation due to what Ras Tafari knows, as the “GONG,” or Leonard Percival Howell is known as “the first Rasta.” 

Leonard P. Howell (Ras Tafari's first proclaimer)
Leonard P. Howell (Ras Tafari’s first proclaimer)

Howell made clean & clear statements of the salvation of the descendants of African slaves in the Western Hemisphere was a life of their redemption only if they returned to the roots spiritually, mentally and ultimately physically to their origin.  Joseph Nathaniel Hibbert, Archibald Dunkley, and Robert Hinds, were three individuals who had ties into Freemasonic Lodges, that were “Prince Hall” affiliated but, in lieu of, their individual epiphanies they seem to even find themselves in search of a new truth, or so to speak even from the confines of Freemasonic thought.

(pictured above-top) Ethiopian painting of the Trinity & (on bottom) Ras Tafari painting that could clearly represent the initiative movement of Ras Tafari's founding.
(pictured above-top) Ethiopian painting of the Trinity & (on bottom) Ras Tafari painting that could clearly represent the initiative movement of Ras Tafari’s founding.

Quite an interesting, piece of evidence to this very intricate story, huh?…I know, but let’s not get caught up on what we’re hearing because, they’re pieces of the story that we’ve yet to uncover & we’re not near our conclusion of this controversial plot.  So, let us go on…shall we? ok

Now, there were more very prominent members of the Ras Tafari community in its beginning steps that were affiliated with what is known as Freemasonry, but like I said, earlier let’s really look at all the evidence of this situation before we pass judgement.

The first thing we will take a look at is another form of masonry. (which I’am almost certain that you’ve probably never heard of…) We came to the conclusion in earlier installments of this subject matter that Operative Masonry(Occupational Masonry) and Speculative Masonry(Freemasonry) were NOT, one is the same.  Now, we will compare what is known as “mainstream” Freemasonry and Prince Hall Masonry.  I know these are terms you may or may not have heard about but, doing some research on these will open your eyes to what we are presenting here at Ras Tafari Renaissance in this series comparing Ras Tafari and Freemasonry.


Prince Hall, (ca. 1735 – 1807), a mason who started Freemasonry's AFRICAN LODGE #1 in the United States of America.  Has been dubbed the "father African Freemasonry"
Prince Hall, (ca. 1735 – 1807), a mason who started Freemasonry’s AFRICAN LODGE #1 in the United States of America. Has been dubbed the “father of African Freemasonry

Who was Prince Hall?…. Prince Hall, was known for his abolitionism in the 1700s.  Supposedly a free black man in North America that lived in the New England area, and later became the founder of a Freemasonic sect that hails his namesake.  Hall’s birthplace is attributed to a place in the Caribbean; either Barbados, or one of the surrounding islands.  But, Hall is suspected to have at one point been a slave to a William Hall but gained his freedom, somewhere around the time of the Boston Massacre.  For others reasons than the obvious, he clearly also gained the knowledge of reading and writing English, whether being self-taught or assisted.  Hall supported and tried to push the envelope of the free black and enslaved, to have a place in education, military, and also later Freemasonry in the U.S.

another depiction of Prince Hall
another depiction of Prince Hall

Now, I won’t give you anymore information on Prince Hall as of now…I’ll leave the rest of his work up to your own individual research and understanding.

For now, I would like to continue with the series and show, why he helped to establish his sect Freemasonry in the United States & how “mainstream” Freemasonry differs. (even from there own testimony)

Many Freemasonic writers met Prince Hall and his establishment of African Lodge #1 (ie. Prince Hall Freemasonry) with resistance from within Freemasonic ranks.

Now, in the earlier posts of this series, I mentioned how Freemasonic texts can be very discreet in their language; mainly because of their affinity for keeping the inner workings of the organizations at bey from those who are not affiliated in their circles.  But, I noticed something that continued to keep coming up in regards to Prince Hall Freemasonry when compared to “mainstream” Freemasonry by Freemasonic writers, themselves….? What was so noticeable was this word CLANDESTINE….this word Clandestine comes up so much when in regard to Prince Hall Freemasonry it compelled me to go in further on what was such the commotion.

-clandestine= kept or done in secret, often in order to conceal an improper purpose; surreptitious; irregular; stealth. (from clandestin Latin 1560s) “to hide” or “secret.”

It turns out that Prince Hall Freemasonry or otherwise known as Negro Masonry, has been dubbed CLANDESTINE, since the inception of Prince Hall and his affiliates organizing and forming the AFRICAN LODGE; and this notion hasn’t been overturned since.  The questioning of Masonic “legitimacy” is and has been under scrutiny for the Prince Hall Masons.  Until this day in 2013, the stamp of CLANDESTINE-NEGRO/PRINCE HALL MASONRY has not been uplifted or challenged by any other Lodge of Masonry, save the works of Prince Hall, himself, and other Prince Hall Freemasons. hmmm?? peculiar


[sources: Mackey, Albert G.; 33°; Masonry Defined/ Blight, Reynold; 33°; Freemasonry At A Glance  ]

Peculiar, I say, because in the beginning stages of the Ras Tafarian movement in the 1930s there were many who were affiliated with Prince Hall Freemasonry.

Take the Ras Tafarian movement’s founders; Leonard P. Howell, Joseph Nathaniel Hibbert &, H. Archibald Dunkley , who are accredited for the formation of the grassroots organizing of the Ras Tafarian movement.

In the literary work of Dread Jesus: A New View of the Ras Tafarian Movement by William David Spencer, I(Lidj Yefdi), along with probably a number of other Ras Tafarians have our own grounds to stand on in disagreements with some of the information presented in this work, but in its essence of giving the initial recognition of Ras Tafari’s start-up in the shantytowns of the Caribbean island of Jamaica, it is a pretty good work.

here is a selection from the piece by Spencer, which I only have one gripe with but in displaying the connection of the founders Ras Tafari in Jamaica to their Freemasonic affiliation; it is right on cue! (Ras Tafari Renaissance will add our own evidence on disputable matters)

“Spencer insists on the role played on the foundation of Ras Tafari religion by three preachers: Leonard Howell, H. Archibald Dunkley, and Joseph Nathaniel Hibbert. As far as, Dunkley and Hibbert are concerned, he insists on their membership in the Great Ancient Brotherhood of Silence, or Ancient Mystic Order of Ethiopia, one of the “black” (or “Prince Hall“) Masonic organizations. Spencer claims that a number of features of Ras Tafari religion derive from this branch of Freemasonry (including the name “Jah” for “God”, coming from the Masonic form “Jah-Bul-On”)

Now, Spencer presents a very credible case for the affiliation of three of the known founding fathers of Ras Tafari to Prince Hall Freemasonry in the Ancient Mystic Order of Ethiopia.  But, as far as, the word “JAH” coming from out of the midst of “Jah-bul-On”, I will have to bring about a objection to that statement.  Why? Mainly because, it is known that the Ras Tafarians are Biblical & scriptural influenced people & no where in any Bible can you find “Jah-bul-On” in scripture.  Maybe, in the Freemasonic Lodges of the “mainstream” but, clean & cut, the word “JAH” can be found in the King James Version of the Bible in English, right there in Psalms 68:4 .

Ps. 68:4 =

Sing unto God, sing praises to his name: extol him that rideth upon the heavens by his name JAH, and rejoice before him.

Also, to make another note, that Ras Tafari is not a religion, it is a faith and culture of a people. 

For Ras Tafari, sighting JAH, in the Bible in the language they were coerced to learn in subject to their oppression away from their origins(English); it was a subtle step in returning to their linguistic past in calling upon their God whose name also, in contraction inanglicized, could be known as Yah (יהּ‎) in the Hebrew.  From the Tetragrammaton= YHWH.



Now, to the “Jah-bul-On” its for certain if you asks most Ras Tafarians, what does Jah-Bul-On mean, they won’t be able to even give you the slightest explanation.  But, JAH is something they could elaborate on days at a time!  Only in the the Freemasonic circles, texts, and ideologies will Jah-Bul-On, have ground to stand on, surely; & even there it may only be known to the high ranking of Freemasons. (ie. Royal Arch Degree)


[sources: Duncan, Malcolm C.; Duncan’s Masonic Ritual and Monitor/ X, Francis; The Secret Rituals of the O.T.O.]

So, with all this said and cleared we now move on to the Ancient Mystic Order of Ethiopia.  Research from Ras Tafari Renaissance is still in the works on this order of supposed Prince Hall Freemasonry, but it is certain and we can confirm that this order has no holdings in “mainstream” Freemasonry.  So, by process of elimination we have come to a conclusion that is pending on the origin of this mystical order.  But, what we can assure of is that solid evidence in the world and of the testimony of those who make claims of it, state a hard case to debate, falsehood.

H.I.M. in regalia
H.I.M. in regalia

We’ll now introduce you all to a treat by one Ras Tafari’s own, whom we have looked to in our initial education and growth in Ras Tafari.  Presenting a well written article, along with others here you will be able to check out is our bredrin in spirit and truth, Negus Amlak.  This bredrin produced works with a showcase that was named in times past Ras Tafari Rising, which touched on many aspects of the movement of Ras Tafari, and other subjects the like.  But, here brother, Negus Amlak, has produced a writ that goes into the very essence of Freemasonry & gives the groundbreaking truth on its origin, its original teachers, and originial schools (Operative, meaningly!…)

[the article follows the editorial pattern of the title Masonry From Whence We Came] link below:


hope you enjoy & we will catch you in part 5…..JAH RAS TAFARI!!!

Joseph Nathaniel Hibbert (one of three of the initiators of the formation of Ras Tafari in Jamaica, in regalia resembling that of a priest)
Joseph Nathaniel Hibbert (one of three of the initiators of the formation of Ras Tafari in Jamaica, in articles of clothing resembling that of a priest)

So Rasta, Tell Me; “Are You A Mason(Freemason)” part 3

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellasie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,


So, we continue with this series of lines drawn between Ras Tafari and Freemasonry.

Now, we have come to the third installment of this sure to be controversial series.

In part two, we covered the topics of operative & speculative masonry.  This topic can easily be researched, the resources can come from a variety of places, but if I were to make any suggestions; I would more than likely direct anyone, who would like to dig into the subject thoroughly, to any library.  A Library, preferably with governmental documentation would be a good start, & of course, there’s always the internet(or at least, for now…), but taking into account that many freemasons, wrote extensively on certain subjects like this one, are surely a plus.  So, looking into some publications by recognized Freemasons, is a more solidified option.

(though, the language of many resource material[of Freemasonic writers] can get a little “tricky”, mainly because some of the intent is meant to go over the majority of people’s heads,{or so to speak}.  If you’re not a Mason[ie. Freemason, Shiner, etc.] its a guarantee that you’ll misinterpret most of the content without further research)

Though, the resource is written for public view, consumption or perusal,… please, know that everything there is to know about Freemasonry is even many times, hidden from the some Freemasons, as well. (…the whole “Hidden In Plain Sight”…adds to that notion, also)

[ here some authors who were masons or masonic writers/commentators, to check out: Manly P. Hall, Pascal Beverly Randolph, Albert G. Mackey, J.S.M. Ward, & Albert Pike ] …just to name a few whose works might be accessible…

Also, in part two of this series we touched on the Templar Knights & the Crusades.

supposed map of the Crusades
supposed map of the Crusades

The “Templars” have been connected in so many ways to modern freemasonry that many have drawn the conclusions that the Freemasons are surely descendants to the Templar legacy.

Now, here is where the story seems to jump all over the place!….(literally, ALL OVER THE PLACE!)  Supposedly after the fall of the Templars in Europe there was a growing disgust for their military order, faith-based practices, & what they stood for altogether.  So much so, there were monarchs, religious figures and others, who sought to annihilate them.  The reasons vary, simply because the Templars were accused of many acts.  Supposedly being a Christian military order, it was said that they carried out “pagan” rituals, had become immersed in greed, & lived by their own principles even to the dismay of others.

[vids giving a synopsis of the story of the Templars]

–notice at, the time(07:25-07:30) the narrator says not only Muslims were killed in the Christian Crusade, but Jews as well. Also, near the ending of this first section[something to ponder…??]




Columbus's ship that sailed West, did bear "Red Crosses." Surely, any children's history book can confirm that...?! "Colombus sailed the ocean blue, in 1492.".....hmmm
Columbus’s ships that sailed West, did bear “Red Crosses.” Surely, any children’s history book can confirm that…?! “Colombus sailed the ocean blue, in 1492.”…..hmmm???


Ah, but also in the year of 1492, the Jews that resided in Iberian Peninsula, along with other parts of Europe were Expelled. (including the Moors, which conquered the area & lands adjacent a little over half-a-century prior)....isn't that interesting?
Ah, but also in the year of 1492, the Jews that resided in Iberian Peninsula(modern day Spain & Portugal), along with other parts of Europe were Expelled; continuing a wave actions which had been perpetuated against Hebrew people & Moors alike during the time. (the Moors, conquered the area & lands adjacent a little over half-a-century prior)….isn’t that interesting? [thought: could this have been a precursor to “the Crusades?“]



Freemasonry does hold rankings of Knights Templar orders. More than likely, they're contained in what is called the York Rite.(Modern Historical, Chivalric, & Philosophical Grades)
Freemasonry does hold rankings of Knights Templar orders. More than likely, they’re contained in what is called the York Rite.(Modern Historical, Chivalric, & Philosophical Grades)

complete listing of the degrees of Freemasonry, confirmed from: Lester, Ralph P.; Look To The East, Revised Edition, copyright 1944/1971 re-publication

The History Channel's presentation of how the Templar Knights surviving few escaped annilhilation is also another source for study of the origins of Freemasonry.
The History Channel‘s presentation of how the Templar Knights surviving few escaped annilhilation is also another source for study of the origins of Freemasonry.

Yes, the story of the Templars and Freemasons has brought about an inception in the America, supposedly before the arrival of Columbus.

Although, clearly the issues of the documentation present some very peculiar facts, the grounds which they stand upon in principle seem quite precarious.  Leaving the solidified source to the origins of Freemasonry, “still up in the air.”  But, keeping with the topic of discussion, we can conclude that modern has certainly studied to access the workings of the Knights Templars.  Also, in incorporating orders into the highest of their ranks, in that of the medieval system of chivalry.

Now, I know that it seems that we’ve laid much ground work, but I can assure you with this in your mind at this point it will help you in going forward with the rest of this series.

So, we’ve come to the realization that Freemasonry is an organization, pulling ideology from the medieval era of Europe.  Now, believe it or not with all of this evidence to research, many people still seem to bring Ras Tafari to an extremly close proximity to Freemasonry.  On one hand, Ras Tafari Renaissance, can confirm that Freemasonry expresses the values that could very well come to a closeness to Ras Tafari, but the differences speak in high volumes.

Moving on, we’ll dive a little deeper into the symbolism of Freemasonry & gain a better grasp on the application of their speculative masonry. Then, we’ll come to the blurring of the lines between Freemasonry and Ras Tafari.


square and compass

we’ll see you in in part 4…

So Rasta, Tell Me; “Are You A Mason(Freemason) part 2

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellasie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,


So, we continue with this series of lines drawn between Ras Tafari and Freemasonry.

We made acknowledgments of what could be found on Freemasonic history at first glance, from a general perspective but, let us now go deeper into this subject.

Now, with minimal understanding from whence Freemasonry came,  the inception of it should lead us to a more credible reservoir.  Masonry…? What is it exactly?…Let us define it so we can, at least, have somewhere to start.

MASON– is more than likely a person skilled in laying stone or brick. [ie. bricklayer, brick mason, stone mason, craftsman, stonecraft] (sources cited: Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary; various edictions)


MASONRY– 1) the trade, work done, or occupation of a mason. 2) the craft of brick laying or concrete structure building. [ie. craft and stone working; building]

FREEMASON– a member of fraternal organization known as the Free & Accepted Masons (sources cited: Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary; various editions;;


FREEMASONRY– “first know that there is no one {written in stone definition} of Freemasonry,” but for the sake of our study we’ll use a conglomerate of explanation from many cited resources. Freemasonry–a fraternity or fraternal organization; an organized society of men, symbolically applying the principle of Operative Masonry and architecture to the science and art of character building. (sources: Masonic Lodge personnel information[what can be found on many Lodge sites-“or at least what they’ll allow us to see“…HA!; ex.}Masonic Lodge of Richmond, Va., USA,…Masonic Lodge of Queensland, Australia,…Masonic Lodge in Geneva, Switzerland,, various Freemasonic texts, web pages; Lester, Ralph P., Look To The East Revised Edition<other sources cited in body>)

So, when it comes to the term Freemasonry its clear that there is an application of operation and an application of theorem.  In coming to the realization of these two distinct terms, (masonry and Freemasonry) it should be noted that though, the terms may and can be used interchangeably depending on the context of a given subject; the certain and distinguishable separation between the two terms should evident and concrete.

The Freemasons, themselves, even make the clear distinction in literature.

Operative masonry= physical manifestation of building objects.

Speculative masonry= a philosophical harnessing of thought that preceded fruition.

Ras Tafari Renaissance Revelations, draws these conclusions after taking a look at works like; Sickels, Daniel_General Ahiman Rezon[1868]

Mackey, Albert G._The Symbolism of Freemasonry[1882]

(L-) "operative mason"=stone cutter, mason &, (R-) statue of the "Thinking man"; a work of masonry but symbolizing the the application of a ="speculative mason."
(L-) “operative mason”=stone cutter, mason &, (R-) statue of the “Thinking man”; a work of masonry but symbolizing the the application of a =”speculative mason.”

Now, with all of this to mull over, please do not take from this explanation of the differences of Ras Tafari & Freemasonry that, if one were a Freemason, that same one could not be an operative mason.  Besides, the essence of Freemasonry is the adoration of literal masonry, and it is clear that the Society of Free & Accepted Masons, are welcoming to people of many “walks of life.”  But, in the theology of Freemasonry, it should be noted that speculation, thought, or contemplation of certain values should be applied as a focal point in Freemasonic elaboration.

Moving on, after examining original masonry and modern freemasonry, we’ve laid the foundation for more depth in this subject.  As mentioned before in part one of this series, Freemasonry has an elusive beginning, which is not noted to a specific source….hmmmm??

In part one, of this series, it was presented that Freemasonry could’ve either had its beginning from the Stone Mason Guilds in Europe.  There have also been conclusions drawn from the mysterious Knights Templars, of the Crusades(somewhere between 1095 and 1291[AD]).  But probably, the most unexamined claim(pertaining to solid evidence) would probably be of the origins of the Freemasons learning from the most dynamic masonic builders this world as yet to equate to,….the ever so famed Egyptians.  Taking these claims, along with others into consideration lets continue to take this journey of discovery and remember to find the lines of similarity and difference between Ras Tafari & Freemasonry.

a painting of the Crusader period

Now, I know that I haven’t said much about Ras Tafari in comparison to Freemasonry as of yet, but please, be patient with me?  I’am sure many of you have heard so many things about both groups that seem to be conflicting at times; but I assure you that if you allow Ras Tafari Renaissance to present you with as many facts as it possibly can you should be able to form your own opinions and conclusions.(as well as, do your own research, adequately)

So, going into the notion of the Knights Templars, which surely preceded the period which, in one assertion that, Freemasonry could’ve had a formation in the Stone Mason’s Guilds of Europe brings us to an earlier supposed inception with the Crusader period or earlier.  This period can become a focal point in studying the origins of Freemasonry, mainly because most of the claims of Freemasonry are made from this period of time and in some cases, can carry some weight.(in provable facts, moderately)

a depiction used to represent the Templar Kinghts in regalia(Knights Templar)
a depiction used to represent the Templar Kinghts in regalia(Knights Templar)

The Templar Knights(or Knights Templar), have gained fame among those who have studied the Crusader period because of their mysterious acts during this time.  They’re accredited with initiating some of the first banking systems, becoming a valiant Christian military order of knights, as well as, an organization with monks of piety, and possibly surviving a slew of onslaught in the Crusader period.(just to name a few)  One of the significant acts of the Templars, was attributed to their works in aiding pilgrims who sought to travel to the “Holy Land”(Jerusalem), but were routinely robbed and in many cases slaughtered in route.  A French knight, by the name of Hughes de Payens is credited for the formation of this military order of knights.

Hughes de Payens (attributed with the fouding of the Kinghts Templar); from Champagne, France
Hughes de Payens (attributed with the founding of the Knights Templar); from Champagne, France

…we will continue in the next edition of this series in Part 3…

stay tuned, there is so much more to unravel!

So Rasta, Tell Me; “Are You A Mason(Freemason)?” part 1

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellasie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,



Fair Use: 17 USC § 107


I welcome you all again to yet another post from Ras Tafari Renaissance:
I go by Lidj Yefdi & I’am appreciative to all of you who have taken the time to check out the information I’ve placed forth here. The things posted here are usually not in the category of the accepted normalcy, of the way of the world, in these times.  I, personally, would like to think of the things I present here as “outside of the box,” “off the grid,”…so on & so forth. So, if one was looking for the average way of doing things which would be the, in my opinion, conforming to a system of calculated redundancy that leads to destruction.

Welcome - maintained by Sri Brahadeeswara Lodge Masonic Research Circle

In this post, Ras Tafari Renaissance would like to delve in to the misconceptions between Ras Tafari & the fraternal organization of Freemasonry. Of course, this post will most certainly, again be a very controversial & I'(eye)-opening presentation, but it also will be an enlightening one.

Now, as the world has become totally “spooked” out by the boogeymen whom everyone has dubbed them as the Illuminati-“Illuminated Ones,”

illuminati ambigram

there comes, as usual, the missing links to what hold the truth about what all of this is about.

Please, don’t expect this post here at Ras Tafari Renaissance to go into a long-winded, unsupported, finger pointing, blame game of how Ras Tafari has no parts in what has become the talk of the times, today. [well,…maybe long winded, but supported nonetheless, lol.] (esp. with “Freemasonry,” & the perception of the “Illuminati” ) Ras Tafari Renaissance, intends to present facts, to be as accurate as possible, & make the best corrections of specific subjects when the time is appropriate.


Freemasonry,….a fraternity or fraternal organization that has debatable origins has seem to gain a presence in the minds of many who have found themselves come across what this organization may stand for.  Some give accreditation to Freemasonry’s beginnings in the Stone Mason’s Guild between the periods of the 14th-16th century.(& more than likely around the areas known as the British Isles; Scotland of England of today)

supposed painting of the Stone Mason's Guild_possibly 14th century
supposed painting of the Stone Mason’s Guild_possibly 14th century



Others attribute the beginning of Freemasonry to more ancient origins.

Rebbi Norvin H. Bey Isra-El, occult teachings on Freemasonry/Order of the Eastern Star

Now, before we go any further, let’s really lay some foundational understanding of what a mason is, what one may do for occupational or recreational activity.

Ladies & Gentlemen, brothers & sisters, loving friends, family, even you haters & conspirators, welcome to the Revelations of Ras Tafari Renaissance.  The “emancipation of the minds from mental slavery” (Redemption Song_Bob Marley – ብርሃነ ሰላሴ), has only begun.

here just a few things to check out, to smooth you all over until part two….. MAY JAH GUIDE, BLESS & KEEP YOU!

Redemption Song! Bob Marley I-tation(meditation)  HUDADE to FASIKA (Ethiopian Passover)

BIGG UP! Lion of Judah Society of His Imperial Majesty

 So Rasta, Tell Me; “Are You A Mason(Freemason)?” Part 2, ON THE WAY…እባክዎን(please?) do not adjust your screen, just open your eyes, because this site is not for the Blind I’yez, I-yah

I-yah I-yez