Tag Archives: Eritrea

6. Abíy Tẓ’ōm – ዐቢይ ጾም / ዓብይ ጾም ✤ Hūdădæ – ሑዳዴ (the Lenten Fast)

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

This is another one of the many interpretations of the Scriptures from the light of Ras Tafari by, I, Lidj Yefdi (pronounced Lij, Yef-dee).

I welcome you all to another celebratory posting as we move closer to monumental commemoration of the Hebraic Passover.  This time is set for recollection and reexamination of one’s self.  Fasting & prayer is key leading up to the Passover.

In continuation already set by the first day of the Samint/Shabua (loosely translated; the week); we begin the 2nd level of the count in Abïy T’zōm – አብይ ፆም/ዓቢይ ጾም.

([YeAbiy Ts’om Minbabat : Zeymawoch’na Sibketoch]) = The Readings for the “Great Fast” : Times of the Teachings/Preachings/Sermons.

http://ethiopianorthodox.org/amharic/seasonal/lentprogram.html

lent-hudade

Abiy Tsom/ Hudade = the Great Lenten Fast

RasTafari Renaissance continues to celebrate in the Tewahedo faith the “Great Fast,” or Abíy Tẓ’ōm – ዐቢይ ጾም / ዓቢይ ጾም.  This period in the Ethiopian & Eritrean Churches, which are also known as the “Tewahido/Tewahedo” churches clustered with the other Orthodox sister churches (ie. Greek Orthodox, Syrian Orthodox, Russian Orthodox etc etc) have similar practices which have orderly examples in which they observe this time leading up to Passover; known to the greater world as “Easter.”  You may know of this time especially in the West, that leads to Easter.

To the Ethiopian & Eritrean Orthodox Churches, Lent (Hūdădæ – ሑዳዴ) Abíy Tẓ’ōm,  means a period of fasting when the faithful undergo a rigorous schedule of prayers and penitence. This fast is observed with greater rigor than any other fast and it is a test of one’s Christianity.  One who fails to keep it is not considered a good Christian.  Properly observed it nullifies the sins committed during the rest of the year.  The faithful should abstain from all food except bread, water and salt.  It consists of about 56 days (opposite of the Western Christian – 40 days), all meat is forbidden, and also, what are called “lactina/lactose;” milk, butter, cheese, eggs, etc, by practical sense.

This sixth week’s readings, focus on verses from the Book of Matthew chapter 25: verses 14-30(31).

Each week of the Great Lent has its own name associated with what Christ did or taught. The names and the corresponding part for readings, of the bible are shown below with each Sunday heralding the beginning of each week & focus reading.

http://www.eotc.faithweb.com/

[NOTE:]  Usually, small children of are excluded from these practices until the age of maturity has surfaced.

(around pre-teen, or the teenage period)

Hudade(ሑዳዴ)-Lent [2]

https://ethnomed.org/calendar/abiy-tsom-lent-2016

Fasting is appears in many religions around the world, but, as ones would know, in the west it has lost its rigour for the majority of peoples. However, in the Ethiopian/Eritrean Orthodox church & to the extent of the other Orthodox churches of the east; there are many fasting days through the year.  In the most strict observances, all fasters would be vegan for half the year.  The longest of the fasts is our topic here in the Hudade(i)/ Abiy Tsom season.  So, as the Lenten Fast or the “Great Fast,” leads up to Easter/Passover it is variously known in dfferent forms, and the majority of adherent of the Orthodox churches approximately fast for these 55 days every year.

5. Abíy Tẓ’ōm – ዐቢይ ጾም / ዓብይ ጾም ✤ Hūdădæ – ሑዳዴ (the Lenten Fast)

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

This is another one of the many interpretations of the Scriptures from the light of Ras Tafari by, I, Lidj Yefdi (pronounced Lij, Yef-dee).

I welcome you all to another celebratory posting as we move closer to monumental commemoration of the Hebraic Passover.  This time is set for recollection and reexamination of one’s self.  Fasting & prayer is key leading up to the Passover.

In continuation already set by the first day of the Samint/Shabua (loosely translated; the week); we begin the 2nd level of the count in Abïy T’zōm – አብይ ፆም/ዓቢይ ጾም.

([YeAbiy Ts’om Minbabat : Zeymawoch’na Sibketoch]) = The Readings for the “Great Fast” : Times of the Teachings/Preachings/Sermons.

http://ethiopianorthodox.org/amharic/seasonal/lentprogram.html

lent-hudade

Abiy Tsom/ Hudade = the Great Lenten Fast

RasTafari Renaissance continues to celebrate in the Tewahedo faith the “Great Fast,” or Abíy Tẓ’ōm – ዐቢይ ጾም / ዓቢይ ጾም.  This period in the Ethiopian & Eritrean Churches, which are also known as the “Tewahido/Tewahedo” churches clustered with the other Orthodox sister churches (ie. Greek Orthodox, Syrian Orthodox, Russian Orthodox etc etc) have similar practices which have orderly examples in which they observe this time leading up to Passover; known to the greater world as “Easter.”  You may know of this time especially in the West, that leads to Easter.

To the Ethiopian & Eritrean Orthodox Churches, Lent (Hūdădæ – ሑዳዴ) Abíy Tẓ’ōm,  means a period of fasting when the faithful undergo a rigorous schedule of prayers and penitence. This fast is observed with greater rigor than any other fast and it is a test of one’s Christianity.  One who fails to keep it is not considered a good Christian.  Properly observed it nullifies the sins committed during the rest of the year.  The faithful should abstain from all food except bread, water and salt.  It consists of about 56 days (opposite of the Western Christian – 40 days), all meat is forbidden, and also, what are called “lactina/lactose;” milk, butter, cheese, eggs, etc, by practical sense.

This fifth week’s readings, focus on verses from the Book of Matthew chapter 24: verses 1-35.

Each week of the Great Lent has its own name associated with what Christ did or taught. The names and the corresponding part for readings, of the bible are shown below with each Sunday heralding the beginning of each week & focus reading.

http://www.eotc.faithweb.com/

[NOTE:]  Usually, small children of are excluded from these practices until the age of maturity has surfaced.

(around pre-teen, or the teenage period)

Hudade(ሑዳዴ)-Lent [2]

https://ethnomed.org/calendar/abiy-tsom-lent-2016

Fasting is appears in many religions around the world, but, as ones would know, in the west it has lost its rigour for the majority of peoples. However, in the Ethiopian/Eritrean Orthodox church & to the extent of the other Orthodox churches of the east; there are many fasting days through the year.  In the most strict observances, all fasters would be vegan for half the year.  The longest of the fasts is our topic here in the Hudade(i)/ Abiy Tsom season.  So, as the Lenten Fast or the “Great Fast,” leads up to Easter/Passover it is variously known in dfferent forms, and the majority of adherent of the Orthodox churches approximately fast for these 55 days every year.

4. Abíy Tẓ’ōm – ዐቢይ ጾም / ዓብይ ጾም ✤ Hūdădæ – ሑዳዴ (the Lenten Fast)

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

This is another one of the many interpretations of the Scriptures from the light of Ras Tafari by, I, Lidj Yefdi (pronounced Lij, Yef-dee).

I welcome you all to another celebratory posting as we move closer to monumental commemoration of the Hebraic Purïm & Passover.  This time is set for recollection and reexamination of one’s self.  Fasting & prayer is key leading up to the Passover.

In continuation already set by the first day of the Samint/Shabua (loosely translated; the week); we begin the 2nd level of the count in Abïy T’zōm – አብይ ፆም/ዓቢይ ጾም.

([YeAbiy Ts’om Minbabat : Zeymawoch’na Sibketoch]) = The Readings for the “Great Fast” : Times of the Teachings/Preachings/Sermons.

http://ethiopianorthodox.org/amharic/seasonal/lentprogram.html

lent-hudade

Abiy Tsom/ Hudade = the Great Lenten Fast

RasTafari Renaissance continues to celebrate in the Tewahedo faith the “Great Fast,” or Abíy Tẓ’ōm – ዐቢይ ጾም / ዓቢይ ጾም.  This period in the Ethiopian & Eritrean Churches, which are also known as the “Tewahido/Tewahedo” churches clustered with the other Orthodox sister churches (ie. Greek Orthodox, Syrian Orthodox, Russian Orthodox etc etc) have similar practices which have orderly examples in which they observe this time leading up to Passover; known to the greater world as “Easter.”  You may know of this time especially in the West, that leads to Easter.

To the Ethiopian & Eritrean Orthodox Churches, Lent (Hūdădæ – ሑዳዴ) Abíy Tẓ’ōm,  means a period of fasting when the faithful undergo a rigorous schedule of prayers and penitence. This fast is observed with greater rigor than any other fast and it is a test of one’s Christianity.  One who fails to keep it is not considered a good Christian.  Properly observed it nullifies the sins committed during the rest of the year.  The faithful should abstain from all food except bread, water and salt.  It consists of about 56 days (opposite of the Western Christian – 40 days), all meat is forbidden, and also, what are called “lactina/lactose;” milk, butter, cheese, eggs, etc, by practical sense.

This fourth week’s readings, focus on verses from the Book of John chapter 5: verses 1-18.

Each week of the Great Lent has its own name associated with what Christ did or taught. The names and the corresponding part for readings, of the bible are shown below with each Sunday heralding the beginning of each week & focus reading.

http://www.eotc.faithweb.com/

[NOTE:]  Usually, small children of are excluded from these practices until the age of maturity has surfaced.

(around pre-teen, or the teenage period)

Hudade(ሑዳዴ)-Lent [2]

https://ethnomed.org/calendar/abiy-tsom-lent-2016

Fasting is appears in many religions around the world, but, as ones would know, in the west it has lost its rigour for the majority of peoples. However, in the Ethiopian/Eritrean Orthodox church & to the extent of the other Orthodox churches of the east; there are many fasting days through the year.  In the most strict observances, all fasters would be vegan for half the year.  The longest of the fasts is our topic here in the Hudade(i)/ Abiy Tsom season.  So, as the Lenten Fast or the “Great Fast,” leads up to Easter/Passover it is variously known in dfferent forms, and the majority of adherent of the Orthodox churches approximately fast for these 55 days every year.

✡ Abiy Ts’om ✤ Purim ✤ Adwa ✡

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

This is another one of the many interpretations of the Scriptures from the light of Ras Tafari by, I, Lidj Yefdi (pronounced Lij, Yef-dee).

So, today in Jerusalem and wherever there are adherents to Hebrew/Jewish traditions and such are celebrated the Fast of Esther, which will culminate with the celebration of Purim – פּוּרִים .

HEBREW CALENDAR2

Purim, is the celebration of the deliverance of the Jews that were under the rule of the Persian Empire.

[SIDE-NOTE] FLASH FORWARD, in Scripture the Persian Empire (or otherwise known to be the Medes, were apart the four kingdoms prophecy, which Nebuchadnezzer’s dream, was interpreted by Daniel, for him by way of God’s revealing).

With this year’s calculations coming at such an interesting hedge, I apologize for not having the explanation, in full, of the Ethiopic Christian commemoration of the Great Fast or Abïy Ts’om in more detail, as I, my self have been incognito this past couple of weeks restoring my own spiritual & mental health.  This time of year leads up a sort of renewal of the faith among observers.

(But, if you’re so inclined be sure to search out our earlier posts regarding Abiy T’som, for more details…)

As we have entered into the 3rd week of the celebration in “Mikurab” (ምኩራብ) or loosely translated into the “Synagouge”/”Sanctuary” or the “gathering.”

With ever seven days, there are specific readings from the scriptures, that coincide respectively with the time & reason for the season.

According to this years’ calculations; Feb 20 – April 15, 2017, is the Ethiopian Orthodox Great Holy Lenten Fast will be in line with 55 days culminating on “Easter” April 16, 2017, observed by followers of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.

Now, with Esther and the story from Persia ( Iran ), The Fast of EstherTa’anit Ester:תַּעֲנִית אֶסְתֵּר  ,” is a Jewish/Hebrew fast from dawn until dusk on Purim eve, commemorating the three-day fast observed by the Jewish people in the story of Purim. If the date of the Fast of Esther falls on Shabbat, the fast is instead observed on the preceding Thursday. Like other minor fasts, Ta’anit Esther begins at dawn (first light) and ends at nightfall (full dark).

The Persian Empire came after the Babylonian Captivity.

Nebuchadnezzar-statue2

The Jews/Hebrews in Persia were freed from the hand of Haman, who had gained favor in the sight of the king Ahasuerus (whom is also accounted for as being Xerxes I). No, Xerxes I, is not the Persian king of the movie “300” dealing with the Spartans. THAT WAS PURE HOLLYWOOD ENTERTAINMENT; THIS IS HISTORICAL FACT. Xerxes, was the king of Persia whom gave favor to Haman, the Agagite. But loved deeply, Esther, whom was the daughter of Mordecai, the Jew.

achaedyn

Mordecai, instructed Esther to conceal her heritage from the king and all of his court, for she had been taken along with many other young women to be suited for the king of Persia, because he put away Vashti, from being queen. But upon the conflict of Mordecai vs. Haman; Haman sought to destroy ALL the Jews/Hebrews in Persia. Silver was the payment of Haman to the king to destroy the Jews, young old, men, women and children.

[Esther 2: 7- 3:15]

MAP_PERSIA

Vashti, refused the king’s request to appear before the king & his guests, which were nobles and princes throughout Persia and Media.

[Esther 1(entire Chpt)]

But, unknowingly Hadassah (Eshter), was of the people of Jews (Hebrews) by way of her adoption by Mordecai, who reverenced not Haman, as the king had wanted for those of the kingdom in Persia and Media.

In the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar, on its thirteenth day … on the day that the enemies of the Jews were expected to prevail over them, it was turned about: the Jews prevailed over their adversaries.

[Esther 9:1]

THE STORY OF HADASSAH(ESTHER) THE QUEEN

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xpGaDOfwty4

I would also like to give much, much thanks to the Lion of Judah Society, Inc., organization for their interpretation of Scriptures, historical events, & Ras Tafari dissemination of Ethiopian heritage in Africa, as well as, the diaspora. Here, I would like for you all to check out & consider the facts put forth here. Research, study & come to your own conclusions about the story of Hadassah (Esther) the Queen.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNal4U1fgTI

So, all -in-all to the Daughters of Zion, which I named this post,…I’am sure many of you are questioning that move. Well, its very simple! Women in society are many times are thought to be pushed to the backside of many important events, and happenings in this world we see today, but, clearly even in antiquity, women hold power and influence that they, themselves, sometimes are unable to recognize. Even, the power to save millions to the billions from despair.

But, for the Daughters of Zion, as well as, the Sons, the Scriptures clearly state that we are to remember Purim for all generations, and to keep them in writing.

[Esther 9:27-28]

Not to mention being the givers of life, nourishment, sustainability…and out right, “being the first teachers of human civilization(or every child) that comes to this world” _quoted from El Hajj Malik El Shabazz(Malcolm X) by way of the Most Honorable Elijah Muhammad. Sisters, mothers, daughters and women of our families the message you give to the child(children) they will give to the world. So please consider your illustrious position in the cosmology of this existence. & while we as Ras Tafari, Ethiopians, Hebrews, & Israelites, celebrate the essence of woman in the example of Queen Esther; I certainly hope, that the men will acknowledge the counterpart that was created to be the companion of ours.

for more information on Purim; check out these pages:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purim

http://www.sichosinenglish.org/cgi-bin/calendar?holiday=auto

Chag Purim Sameach’= Greeting for Purim

חג פורים שמח

Shalom/Selam

Ras Tafari Renaissance also writes to give perspective to the Ethiopian commemoration of the Battle of Adwa, which just so happens to coincide on today’s date also.  A history changing event that shocked the world to its core.  At the time of the Battle of Adwa, the African continent was nearly colonized at every angle. due to to the “Scramble for Africa“.  The only two countries that hadn’t been colonized by European countries were Ethiopia & Liberia.  But even with all of this in the forefront, Ethiopia had defended itself well against Italian forces; saving the whole of Africa from total colonization.

battle-of-adwa-1896

The valiance of the Ethiopian people, in defense of their country, became a phenomenal example of unity, belief, heritage, & pride.  The Ethiopian people; men, women, & children, in some cases, banded together the banner of the Ethiopian flag: red, gold, & green to put aside their differences in ethnic origin, tribe, religion etc., to secure a future that would include all of them, on their own land.

Image of Empress Taitu Betul

The Treaty of Addis Ababa, formally brought an end to the First Italo-Ethiopian War, (in which the Battle of Adwa, was the pinnacle) whereas Italy officially recognized Ethiopia as a independant and sovereign state.  This treaty has been said to be a secret agreement, for more than scholars’ obvious reasons as Italy would eventually attempt to colonize Ethiopia again, in the coming Second Italo-Ethiopian War.

[Treaty of Addis; Oct. 23. 1896]

For this celebration of the victory at the Battle of Adwa, I would also like to direct all of you to check out this video log from the Ghion Journal on this particular topic. Please, again support & contribute to spreading the news and views of our affiliates?!

http://ghionjournal.com/lessons-adwa-unity-defeated-tyranny/

other links:

for more information on Purim & Jews(Hebrews) of Iran-Persia; check out these pages:

(also, check these links out for more info on the historical Battle of Adwa)

2. Abíy Tẓ’ōm – ዐቢይ ጾም / ዓብይ ጾም ✤ Hūdădæ – ሑዳዴ (the Lenten Fast)

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

This is another one of the many interpretations of the Scriptures from the light of Ras Tafari by, I, Lidj Yefdi (pronounced Lij, Yef-dee).

I welcome you all to another celebratory posting as we move closer to monumental commemoration of the Hebraic Purïm & Passover.  This time is set for recollection and reexamination of one’s self.  Fasting & prayer is key leading up to the Passover.

In continuation already set by the first day of the Samint/Shabua (loosely translated; the week); we begin the 2nd level of the count in Abïy T’zōm – አብይ ፆም/ዓቢይ ጾም.

([YeAbiy Ts’om Minbabat : Zeymawoch’na Sibketoch]) = The Readings for the “Great Fast” : Times of the Teachings/Preachings/Sermons.

http://ethiopianorthodox.org/amharic/seasonal/lentprogram.html

lent-hudade

Abiy Tsom/ Hudade = the Great Lenten Fast

RasTafari Renaissance continues to celebrate in the Tewahedo faith the “Great Fast,” or Abíy Tẓ’ōm – ዐቢይ ጾም / ዓቢይ ጾም.  This period in the Ethiopian & Eritrean Churches, which are also known as the “Tewahido/Tewahedo” churches clustered with the other Orthodox sister churches (ie. Greek Orthodox, Syrian Orthodox, Russian Orthodox etc etc) have similar practices which have orderly examples in which they observe this time leading up to Passover; known to the greater world as “Easter.”  You may know of this time especially in the West, that leads to Easter.

To the Ethiopian & Eritrean Orthodox Churches, Lent (Hūdădæ – ሑዳዴ) Abíy Tẓ’ōm,  means a period of fasting when the faithful undergo a rigorous schedule of prayers and penitence. This fast is observed with greater rigor than any other fast and it is a test of one’s Christianity.  One who fails to keep it is not considered a good Christian.  Properly observed it nullifies the sins committed during the rest of the year.  The faithful should abstain from all food except bread, water and salt.  It consists of about 56 days (opposite of the Western Christian – 40 days), all meat is forbidden, and also, what are called “lactina/lactose;” milk, butter, cheese, eggs, etc, by practical sense.

This second week, focusing on verses from the Book of Matthew chapter 6: verses 16-24.

Each week of the Great Lent has its own name associated with what Christ did or taught. The names and the corresponding part for readings, of the bible are shown below with each Sunday heralding the beginning of each week & focus reading.

http://www.eotc.faithweb.com/

[NOTE:]  Usually, small children of are excluded from these practices until the age of maturity has surfaced.

(around pre-teen, or the teenage period)

Hudade(ሑዳዴ)-Lent [2]

https://ethnomed.org/calendar/abiy-tsom-lent-2016

Fasting is appears in many religions around the world, but, as ones would know, in the west it has lost its rigour for the majority of peoples. However, in the Ethiopian/Eritrean Orthodox church & to the extent of the other Orthodox churches of the east; there are many fasting days through the year.  In the most strict observances, all fasters would be vegan for half the year.  The longest of the fasts is our topic here in the Hudade(i)/ Abiy Tsom season.  So, as the Lenten Fast or the “Great Fast,” leads up to Easter/Passover it is variously known in dfferent forms, and the majority of adherent of the Orthodox churches approximately fast for these 55 days every year.

The Battle of Adwa – (March 1, 1896) – አድዋ

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

RRR - prototype (2015-16)

Ras Tafari Renaissance writes to give perspective to the Ethiopian commemoration of the Battle of Adwa.  A history changing event that shocked the world to its core.  At the time of the Battle of Adwa, the African continent was nearly colonized at every angle. due to to the “Scramble for Africa“.  The only two countries that hadn’t been colonized by European countries were Ethiopia & Liberia.  But even with all of this in the forefront, Ethiopia had defended itself well against Italian forces; saving the whole of Africa from total colonization.

battle-of-adwa-1896

The valiance of the Ethiopian people, in defense of their country, became a phenomenal example of unity, belief, heritage, & pride.  The Ethiopian people; men, women, & children, in some cases, banded together the banner of the Ethiopian flag: red, gold, & green to put aside their differences in ethnic origin, tribe, religion etc., to secure a future that would include all of them, on their own land.

contemporary artwork displaying the courageous acts of Empress Taitu Betul; wife of Emperor Menelik II & Ethiopian Empress.

contemporary artwork displaying the courageous acts of Empress Taitu Betul; wife of Emperor Menelik II & Ethiopian Empress.

The Treaty of Addis Ababa, formally brought an end to the First Italo-Ethiopian War, (in which the Battle of Adwa, was the pinnacle) whereas Italy officially recognized Ethiopia as a independant and sovereign state.  This treaty has been said to be a secret agreement, for more than scholars’ obvious reasons as Italy would eventually attempt to colonize Ethiopia again, in the coming Second Italo-Ethiopian War. [Treaty of Addis; Oct. 23. 1896]

Emperor of Ethiopia Menelik II: Negus Nagast ze Ethiopia

May Day – Independence Day – 05/05/1941′ (Imperial Ethiopia)

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

 

432_417386508351927_1732265329_n

Ras Tafari Renaissance writes to give perspective to the on the Imperial Ethiopian Independence day commemoration.  Imperial Ethiopia, should be the parallel path that any Ras Tafarian should look to walk(trod).  His Imperial Majesty Haile Sellassie I and Her Imperial Majesty Menen Asfaw, showed the poise of ice cubes, while their country was yet, cleverly planned on being relieved of his(Haile Sellassie I’s) guidance, by unnatural powers.  But, by the impeccable strategy, honesty, courage, & just cause-and-effect action….Ethiopia, has remained an Unconquerable Land to the colonist regime, to this date.  So, here on 5th of May, Imperial Ethiopian celebrates its Independence as a memorial, and triumph over the Fascist, & colonial ex-ruling powers.

Haile Sellassie I, raising the bandera(flag of Ethiopia, commemorating Ethiopia's celebrations of continuing their millennial length Independance.

Haile Sellassie I, raising the bandera(flag of Ethiopia, commemorating Ethiopia’s celebrations of continuing their millennial length Independance.

On 5 May 1941, exactly five years after Addis Ababa fell to Mussolini‘s troops, Emperor Haile Selassie was re-installed on the Ethiopian throne. He reentered the city through streets lined with black and white soldiers, having fought his way back against a determined Italian army with Major Orde Wingate’s Gideon Force and his own Ethiopian ‘Patriots”.

http://africanhistory.about.com/b/2013/05/05/ethiopia-regains-its-independence-5-may-1941.htm

selassie-league-of-nations

Haile Sellassie I, had made an impassioned appeal to the League of Nations on 30 June 1936, which gained great support with the United States and Russia. However, many other League of Nations members, especially Britain and France, continued to recognize the Italian possession of Ethiopia.

Ethiopian Patriots

– photo provided and edited by Adam Simeon.

In 1935 Italian soldiers commanded by Marshal Emilio De Bono invaded Ethiopia in what is known as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. The war lasted seven months before an Italian victory was declared. The invasion was condemned by theLeague of Nations, though not much was done to end the hostility.

ethiopian patriots during italian invasion

During the conflict, Italy used mustard gas, ignoring the Geneva Protocol that it had signed seven years earlier. The Italian military dropped mustard gas in bombs, sprayed it from airplanes, and spread it in powdered form on the ground. 150,000 chemical casualties were reported, mostly from mustard gas. In the aftermath of the war Italy annexed Ethiopia, uniting it with Italy’s other colonies in eastern Africa to form the new colony of Italian East Africa, and Vittorio Emmanuel III adopted the title “Emperor of Abyssinia.”

ethiopian warriors3

On 10 June 1940, Italy declared war on the United Kingdom and France, as France was in the process of being conquered by Germany at the time and Benito Mussolini wished to expand Italy’s colonial holdings. An Italian invasion of British Somaliland, in August 1940 was successful, but the war turned against Italy afterward. Haile Sellassie I returned to Ethiopia from England to help rally the resistance. The British began their own invasion in January 1941, and the last organized Italian resistance in Italian East Africa surrendered in November 1941. The British restored Ethiopia’s independence.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethiopian_Empire

087

Haile Selassie Enters Addis Ababa (1941)