Category Archives: culture

🎊መልካም አዲስ ዓመት_Happy Ethiopian New Year!!!🎊

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

Ras Tafari Renaissance Revelations is here wishing you all a VERY HAPPY ETHIOPIAN NEW YEAR!

RRR is proud to have been here studying, giving commentary, and sharing in the fellowship of Ras Tafari.  It has been thoroughly enjoyable, fulfilling to see the responses from all the people from all walks of life, seeking truth, wherever it may be found when pertaining to the Scriptures, (in the light of Ras Tafari), so on & so forth.

We have come through OUR Hebrew-Lunar cycle of time-keeping and will continue our Torah for the Hebraic year, which has brought to year 5779-5780.  But, in OUR Ethiopic-Solar New Year (2012/7512 EC). Which marks quite a significant year, prophetically from a Biblical perspective.

We also would like to alert ones that in the United States of America 🇺🇸, in & around the Washington, D.C., areas; in the capital houses the largest concentrated area of Ethiopian diasporans.  In this American capital area the Ethiopian New Year has been added officially* to the religious national recognized holidays. All due to credit to the economically upwardly mobile and politically active diasporans; 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generations.

Sun & Moon Ethiopic symbols utilized by Tsehai Publishing.

Sun & Moon Ethiopic symbols utilized by Tsehai Publishing.

Though, the year has had its times of trial and times of joy, & some seem to outweigh the other, we all have come though another year, in hopes of seeing many more. (RRR wishes peace, and prosperity to you all!)

Going forward, RRR, has a few short announcements to make…There has begun a process for bringing forward hard copies of this past year’s Sabbath readings with RRR commentary, & availability with be provided for all of those who, wish seek to retain a copies. (Please, stand by?…)

We also would like to take some time out to thank the LOJ Society, Inc., for its commitment, labor of love, and inspiration all of those individuals especially behind the scenes that have provided RRR with the spark to produce the site you see before you!  Misgana(Amharic for “Thanks”)

We BIG UP, RasTafari Midrashim, Ras Tafari Gardeing, Ras Tafari SOUTH, Ras Tafari Redemption, Ras Tafari TV, Melek Media House, each & everyone celebrating the Ethiopian New Year season; far & widefor being an interesting posting blog and coming forward to present intriguing insight into various topics, in & of the world, also through the I-sight of Ras Tafari! Misgana

etyyopiya shall stretch forth her hands(Ps.68_31)

We thank ALL of the Supporters and visitors, those who may have spread the word whenever a post was made hear at RRR.  We look forward to seeing what will inspire you to do something meaningful, in the near and far future.  For all of this we give thanks to none other but the MOST HIGH! & for bringing safely to yet another year.

Please stay tuned, to these blog posts, because there’s is so much more to come…

addis amet-አዲስ ዓመት-happy new year

http://www.rastafarigroundation.com/pt/Free-PDF—RTGs-New-Rastafari-Calendar-2015-2016/blog.htm

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RSS# 29 (ከሞቱ በኋላ/ אַחֲרֵי מוֹת)

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

I welcome you all to a new regeneration of cycle Torah readings!  This is another one of the many interpretations of the Scriptures from the light of Ras Tafari by, I, Lidj Yefdi (pronounced Lij, Yef-dee).

I assure you that if you are patient with me, come with a willing mind and heart(ready to learn), you will receive more than what you might have asked for, in seeking the perspective of a Ras Tafarian’s I-sight (eyesight) if those who actually open up their Bibles to read in a Jewish/Hebrew cycle of readings, & thoroughly discern, have come to seek insight) into the study of the Scriptures.  So,with this Hebrew Shabbot (or Shabbat) we move into the opening of the Torah portion with Acḥáreï Mōt – אַחֲרֵי מוֹת; on the 29th – כט, & on the 30thל,  from a Jewish/Hebrew mode of study for those out in the diaspora, living outside of Jerusalem or Israel; on of the month of Abib(Aviv) – אביב/ Nisan – נִיסָן. (the Hebrew Calendar corresponds to a Lunar cycle of the Moon)  From an Ethiopic-Christian perspective and calculation these readings from the Scriptures would align to what is known as KéMōtū Be’Cḥʷalla – ከሞቱ በኋላ – ; on the 25th – ፳፭, & on the 26th – ፳፮, of the month of Mïyazya – (ሚያዝያ).  On the Ethiopic calendar, which is solar (with its correspondence to the Sun) this Sabbath (or Senbet – ሰንበት) in the Ethiopian language of Amharic which is currently one of the languages of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church(the other language being Ge’ez – ግእዝ).

Readings:

Leviticus 16:1 – 18:30

Ezekiel 22:1-19

Hebrews 9:11-28

 

In this portion of the study of the Scriptures, after the death Aaron’s two sons (Nadab & Abihu), Moses is instructed by God to teach the children of Israel his ways for properly conducting themselves for the service of the Tabernacle.

Nadab & Abihu

Nadab & Abihu

This portion of the Scriptures deals with the rituals which have become what is known today as Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement); Ethiopically known as “Astesryo Q’en” among the Hebrew/Judaic faithful.  When Moses receives the laws and instruction for the practices to be conducted, he is instructed to “cast lots” upon two goats, for the children of Israel. One “lot” is to be cast for an offering to God & the other for a “scapegoat.”

[Lev. 16: 7-10]

Sending Out The Scapegoat _ [ by Webb ]

Sending Out The Scapegoat _ [by Webb]

The one goat that was be presented before God, for a sin offering.  The other goat was to be left alive, presented to God for an atonement & set free into the wilderness carrying the sins of the children of Israel away from the camp.  This ritual along with the other practices of the offerings/sacrifice were to be done in the Tabernacle (Mishkan[HB] – Dinkʷan[ET]), especially as a statute for Israel on the 10th day of the 7th (Tishrei תִּשְׁרִי) month.

hebrew calendar - spring (Yamim Noraim) Holy Days

[Lev. 16:29]

acharei mot - parsha [azazel-scapegoat]

other commandments, laws, and statutes were given to the children of Israel to follow to keep themselves set apart from the other people they might find themselves around.

[Lev.18]

 

RSS# 22 (ሰብስቦ/ וַיַּקְהֵל)

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

I welcome you all to a new regenartion of cycle Torah readings!  This is another one of the many interpretations of the Scriptures from the light of Ras Tafari by, I, Lidj Yefdi (pronounced Lij, Yef-dee).

I assure you that if you are patient with me, come with a willing mind and heart(ready to learn), you will receive more than what you might have asked for, in seeking the perspective of a Ras Tafarian’s I-sight (eyesight) into the study of the Scriptures.

So,with this Hebrew Shabbot (or Sabbath day) if those who actually open up their Bibles to read in a Jewish/Hebrew cycle of readings, & thoroughly discern, have come to the opening of the Torah portion with W(V)ayakhel – וַיַּקְהֵל, from a Jewish/Hebrew mode of study for those out in the diaspora, living outside of Jerusalem or Israel.  From the Jewish or Hebraic Calendar in the 5779 year, this Sabbath day would more than likely fall on the 24th – כד, & on the 25th – כה, of the month of  Adar-אֲדָר . (the Hebrew Calendar corresponds to a Lunar cycle of the Moon)  From an Ethiopic-Christian perspective and calculation these readings from the Scriptures would align to 2011/7511 year, in what is known as Seb’s’bo – ሰብስቦ; on the 22nd – ፳፪, & on the 23rd – ፳፫, on the (ወርኀ) month of የካቲት (Yekateet).  In the Scriptures, what is also known as . On the Ethiopic calendar, which is solar (with its correspondence to the Sun) this Sabbath (or Senbet-ሰንበት) in the Ethiopian language of Amharic which is currently one of the languages of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church(the other language being Ge’ez-ግእዝ)

Readings:

Exodus 35:1- 38:20

I Kings 7: 40-50

II Corinthians 9: 6-11

I Corinthians 3: 11-18

 

This portion of the study of the Scriptures, Moses gathers the children of Israel together to relay rules & regulations for the Sabbath, & how they are to conduct themselves and teach the following generations as a statute among them, forever.  Moses also gave instructions to the children of Israel for the construction of the Tabernacle.

[Exod. 35: 1-19]

Tabernacle (Mishkan-Dinkwan)

Moses, also explained that there would be two chosen among them that would offer their craftsmanship, and work to construct a place where God could come and dwell among the children of Israel while they made their way through the .  Then were found Betz’aleel ben-Uri (ben Uri= son of Uri), out of the tribe of Judah, & Aholiab ben-Achiycamakh (ben Achiycamakh= son of Akisamac) were called by God to be the chief artisans/masons of the Tabernacle in the wilderness.  But this didn’t exclude any of the wise-hearted (men or women: [Exod. 35: 20-26]), skilled and resourceful among the children of Israel to participate.

[Exod. 35: 20-35]

Aholiab & Betza'leel : skilled craftsmen of Israel

Aholiab & Betza’leel : skilled craftsmen of Israel

While the people brought willingly to God, the items for the construction of the Tabernacle, which they could  provide; it was brought to Moses’ attention that they brought more than what would be needed.  Moses then gave commandment and proclamation to the children of Israel that they be restrained from bringing anymore gifts/offerings to the builders and the wise-hearted for the service.

[Ex.36: 1-7]

terumah - parsha (contrubitions-gifts-offerings)

The children of Israel, then went on to construct the Tabernacle in the wilderness for YHWH to come and dwell amongst them.  Dividing the tasks of workmanship among each other, the Hebrews worked diligently constructed the ornaments of the Tabernacle, like the outer courts’ pillars, and the curtains.  The skilled and blessed craftsmen continued their work until all the vestments of the priests,and all of the furniture of the inner sanctum were completed.

israelite-mishkan(tabernacle)-complex-diagram

Battle of Adwa (አድዋ) – 1st of March 1896

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

Ras Tafari Renaissance writes to give perspective to the Ethiopian commemoration of the Battle of Adwa.  A history changing event that shocked the world to its core.  At the time of the Battle of Adwa, the African continent was nearly colonized at every angle. due to to the “Scramble for Africa“.  The only two countries that hadn’t been colonized by European countries were Ethiopia & Liberia.  But even with all of this in the forefront, Ethiopia had defended itself well against Italian forces; saving the whole of Africa from total colonization.

battle-of-adwa-1896

The valiance of the Ethiopian people, in defense of their country, became a phenomenal example of unity, belief, heritage, & pride.  The Ethiopian people; men, women, & children, in some cases, banded together the banner of the Ethiopian flag: red, gold, & green to put aside their differences in ethnic origin, tribe, religion etc., to secure a future that would include all of them, on their own land.

contemporary artwork displaying the courageous acts of Empress Taitu Betul; wife of Emperor Menelik II & Ethiopian Empress.

contemporary artwork displaying the courageous acts of Empress Taitu Betul; wife of Emperor Menelik II & Ethiopian Empress.

The Treaty of Addis Ababa, formally brought an end to the First Italo-Ethiopian War, (in which the Battle of Adwa, was the pinnacle) whereas Italy officially recognized Ethiopia as a independant and sovereign state.  This treaty has been said to be a secret agreement, for more than scholars’ obvious reasons as Italy would eventually attempt to colonize Ethiopia again, in the coming Second Italo-Ethiopian War.

[Treaty of Addis; Oct. 23. 1896]

Emperor of Ethiopia Menelik II: Negus Nagast ze Ethiopia

For this celebration of the victory at the Battle of Adwa, I would also like to direct all of you to check out this video log from the Ghion Journal on this particular topic. Please, again support & contribute to spreading the news and views of our affiliates?!

http://ghionjournal.com/lessons-adwa-unity-defeated-tyranny/

other links:

✡ Lag B’Omer (ל״ג בעומר) ✡

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

I welcome you all to another post for the celebration of the season leading up to the second feast of the Shalosh Regalïm/YeAmät Sost Bä’al; better known as the “Three Pilgrimage Feasts,” of YHWH.  The Counting of the Omer, constitutes the observance of the passage from Scriptures reading from Leviticus 23: 15-16.  The children of Israel, were to number the weeks between Pesach & Shab(v)uot.  Which are the first two moedim – מועדים/ bä’allat – በዓላት, or the appointed times or holidays of the Three Pilgrimage Feasts which were set for the children of Israel to observe by G-d.

shalosh reglaim - ye'sost amet be'al (three pilgrimage feasts)

The Counting of the Omer, relates in so many ways to the agriculture and the teaching which come forth from the observance of the Sabbath.  This observance is not a major holiday but serves as a great reminder of the coming of Shab(v)uot.

Lag B'Omer - Counting of the Omer (shabuot) የመከር በቊራት ነዶ

Modern Jewish tradition links the holiday to the Bar Kokhba Revolt against the Roman Empire (132-135 CE).

Remains of Hurvat Itri village destroyed during the Bar Kokhba revolt

Remains of Hurb(v)at Itri – [חורבת עתרי] village destroyed during the Bar Kokhba revolt

Book of Leviticus; chpt. 23: 15-16

wayikra - parsha4

15) And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the day of rest, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the waving; seven weeks shall there be complete;

16) even unto the morrow after the seventh week shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall present a new meal-offering unto the LORD.

NOTES:

RSS#31 ( ብለህ ንገራቸው / אֱמֹר )

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

I welcome you all to a new regeneration of cycle Torah readings! This is another one of the many interpretations of the Scriptures from the light of Ras Tafari by, I, Lidj Yefdi (or Yefdeyah). I assure you that if you are patient with me, come with a willing mind and heart(ready to learn), you will receive more than what you might have asked for, in seeking the perspective of a Ras Tafarian’s I-sight (eyesight) into the study of the Scriptures. So, with this Hebrew Shabbot(or Sabbath day) if those who actually open up their Bibles to read in a Jewish/Hebrew cycle of readings, & thoroughly discern, have come to the opening of the Torah portions with Æmor – אֱמֹר, from a Jewish/Hebrew mode of study for those out in the diaspora, living outside of Jerusalem or Israel.  From the Jewish or Hebraic Calendar in the 5777, this Sabbath day would probably fall on the 16th – טז, & on the 17th – יז, of the month of Ïyyâr – אִייָר‎‎, [ this month is also known & referred to from Scripture as “Ziv(w) – זיו” especially in relationship to the Babylonian Exile. ] for this week, in this mode of study; for those out in the diaspora or outside of Jerusalem/Israel. (The Hebrew Calendar corresponds to a Lunar cycle of the Moon) &, from an Ethiopic-Christian perspective, in what may be known as the year 2009/2029/7509, on the Ethiopic calendar.  This calculation, with its readings from the Scriptures, would align to B’leh N’gerachew – ብለህ ንገራቸው;  on the 4th – ፬, & on the 5th – ፭, of the ወርኀ(Wärha – month) of G’nbot(ግንቦት) for this Sabbath (or Senbet – ሰንበት) in the Ethiopian language of Amharic which is currently one of the languages of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church(the other language being Ge’ez – ግእዝ).

Readings:

Leviticus 21:1 – 24:23

Ezekiel 44: 15 – 31

I Peter 2: 4 – 10

  The parsha/kifil for this week, is Æmor-B’leh N’gerachew.  But, aside from some of the more obvious inclinations made by socially, historically and politically aware brethren & sistren who probably recognize the blatancy of the symbology passing through the consciousness of the of study portion of the Scriptures, for this week; we will do our best to relay the best possible analysis.

Before going into the study portion in-depth, we will focus on the certain aspects that may or may not interest others in their examinations of not only our claims to the foundation of these studies but, others as well.  For instance, the Hebrew word Æmor – אֱמֹר, which comes to an English meaning of “say,” “utterance,” “word,”(or moreso dealing with speaking).  & the Ethiopian-Amharic equivalent which is, B’leh N’gerachew – ብለህ ንገራቸው, is in harmony to the manner of “speaking words,” more to the implications of intelligently speaking, but spoken words nonetheless being the focal point.

* SIDENOTE: for consideration *

Now, in noticing the ancient names for this week’s portion of the study of the Scriptures, there’s noticeable keys of understanding that one may pick up on, if attention is brought to it.  The point to be made is this,…: Æmor, has a resonant sound phonetically with the Law term known as “Moor.”  When this word/term is scrutinized carefully the term for this parsha, from the Hebraic form can collectively include the disobedience/fall of a great people of a dark hue(color), who were recognized legally during a certain period of time in the southern European region; comprising a number of countries.

moor-definition

From the Ethiopic perspective, the name of the kifil-portion, is B’leh N’gerachew-ብለህ ንገራቸው, and phonetically, especially for anyone who was born or grew up in the Western Hemisphere of the world, could notice the irony of the name of the study, along with the cognitive inferences to the modern time.  B’leh-ብለህ, which more than likely could mean “wise” or “intelligent,” & N’gerachew-ንገራቸው, giving meaning to “words,” or “manners of speaking.

Now, with the term Hebraic Æmor, and of course, the phonetical sounds in the Ethiopic word N’gerachew, the surety of understanding who, and what black people are in general should be a point of interest.  Mainly, because this parsha/kifil deals with the blaspheming of an individual in Hebraic community that was in the wilderness.

THIS WEEK’s STUDY,

is Æmor, which also tells of the rules and regulations given to the children of Israel, for the purification of the priests.  This study takes account of the HOLY days, which were to be observed by Israel, throughout their generations.  This study also shows the instruction by God, to Moses for Israel to perform service in the Tabernacle.  For example, the lights and bread in the Sanctuary were assembled and prepared in specific manner for worship in the Hebrew faith.  The blasphemer and his punishment are also a matter of focus in this study of the Scriptures.

priestly blessing hebrew

The laws for the priesthood were laid out to Moses, for the Kohaniim-כֹּהֲנִים(Priests) of the children of Israel.

[Lev. 21: 1-9]

Correspondingly, laws and commandments were laid out for the women of the children of Israel, with no partiality.  This would show that the children of Israel regardless of gender(sex), were to take responsibility for ones’ self.

[Lev. 21: 9-15]

Commandments of reaping the harvest, in the counting of the Omer, were obligations of the children of Israel, and gleaners were to leave a portion for the poor.

[Lev. 21: 15-24]

kedoshim - parsha [The Gleaners (engraving by Gustave Doré from the 1865 La Sainte Bible)]

The institution for the observance of the HIGH HOLY days were given to Moses for the Hebrew people, as well, in this study.  The feasts were the appointed times the children of Israel, were to reap the their harvests.  Known is modern Judaism, as the Moedim-מועדים: or the Yamim Nora’imימים נוראים.

[Lev. 23: 10-15]

The Sabbath(Shabbot/Senbet), Pesach, Sha(v)bu’ot, Rosh HaShanna, & Yom Kippur, were of the Meodim, that were spoken of in the Scripture study.

[Lev. 23: 1-44]

Shalosh Regalim

"The Blasphemer Stoned" _(illustration from the 1728 Figures de la Bible)

The_Blasphemer_Stoned(illustration from the 1728 Figures de la Bible)

RSS#29/30 (ከሞቱ በኋላ – ቅዱሳን / אַחֲרֵי מוֹת – קְדֹשִׁים)

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

I welcome you all to a new regeneration of cycle Torah readings! This is another one of the many interpretations of the Scriptures from the light of Ras Tafari by, I, Lidj Yefdi (or Yefdeyah). I assure you that if you are patient with me, come with a willing mind and heart(ready to learn), you will receive more than what you might have asked for, in seeking the perspective of a Ras Tafarian’s I-sight (eyesight) into the study of the Scriptures. So, with this Hebrew Shabbot(or Sabbath day) if those who actually open up their Bibles to read in a Jewish/Hebrew cycle of readings, & thoroughly discern, have come to the opening of the Torah portions with Acḥáreï Mōt – אַחֲרֵי מוֹת; from a Jewish/Hebrew mode of study for those out in the diaspora, living outside of Jerusalem or Israel.  From the Jewish or Hebraic Calendar in the 5777, this Sabbath day would probably fall on the 10th – י, & on the 11th – יא, of the month of Ïyyâr – אִייָר‎‎, [ this month is also known & referred to from Scripture as “Ziv(w) – זיו” especially in relationship to the Babylonian Exile. ] for this week, in this mode of study; for those out in the diaspora or outside of Jerusalem/Israel. (The Hebrew Calendar corresponds to a Lunar cycle of the Moon) &, from an Ethiopic-Christian perspective, in what may be known as the year 2009/2029/7509, on the Ethiopic calendar.  This calculation, with its readings from the Scriptures, would align to the 28th – ፳፰, & on the 29th – ፳፱, of the ወርኀ(Wärha – month) of Mïyázïya – ሚያዝያ.  In the Scriptures, what is also known as KéMōtū Be’Cḥʷalla – ከሞቱ በኋላ.  The Ethiopic calendar is solar (with its correspondence to the Sun) aligns to this Sabbath (or Senbet – ሰንበት) in the Ethiopian language of Amharic, which is currently one of the languages of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (the other language being Ge’ez-(ግእዝ)).

Readings:

Leviticus 16:1 – 18:30

Ezekiel 22:1-19

Hebrews 9:11-28

In this portion of the study of the Scriptures, after the death Aaron’s two sons (Nadab & Abihu), Moses is instructed by God to teach the children of Israel his ways for properly conducting themselves for the service of the Tabernacle.

Nadab & Abihu

Nadab & Abihu

This portion of the Scriptures deals with the rituals which have become what is known today as Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement); Ethiopically known as “Astesryo Q’en” among the Hebrew/Judaic faithful.  When Moses receives the laws and instruction for the practices to be conducted, he is instructed to “cast lots” upon two goats, for the children of Israel. One “lot” is to be cast for an offering to God & the other for a “scapegoat.”

[Lev. 16: 7-10]

Sending Out The Scapegoat _ [ by Webb ]

Sending Out The Scapegoat _ [by Webb]

The one goat that was be presented before God, for a sin offering.  The other goat was to be left alive, presented to God for an atonement & set free into the wilderness carrying the sins of the children of Israel away from the camp.  This ritual along with the other practices of the offerings/sacrifice were to be done in the Tabernacle (Mishkan[HB] – Dinkʷan[ET]), especially as a statute for Israel on the 10th day of the 7th (Tishrei תִּשְׁרִי) month.

hebrew calendar - spring (Yamim Noraim) Holy Days

[Lev. 16:29]

acharei mot - parsha [azazel-scapegoat]

other commandments, laws, and statutes were given to the children of Israel to follow to keep themselves set apart from the other people they might find themselves around.

[Lev.18]

** THIS WEEK’S READINGS ARE A DOUBLE-PORTION; TO KEEP AN ADEQUATE NUMBER OF TORAH PORTIONS READINGS FOR THE YEAR **

So, in continuation of this double portion we move on to Kedôshïm – קְדֹשִׁים; From an Ethiopic-Christian perspective and calculation these readings from the Scriptures would align to what is known as Qídusán – ቅዱሳን.

Readings:

Leviticus 19:1- 20:27

Amos 9: 7-20

I Corinthians 6: 9-20

I Peter 1: 13-16

Kedoshi’yim – Q’dusan; has a literal English translation of “the holy ones,” or “the saints.”

Torah-Scroll

The study begins with GOD speaking to Moses, and the children of Israel, saying “make thyselves Holy for He, himself is Holy.”  God, intending to make the children of Israel, “up their game,” in one way or another, by slang terminology.  But, in a literal sense, God sought the children of Israel to turn from ways that hadn’t gotten them anywhere spiritually, physically, and mentally, as a group.  The children of Israel were to adhere to certain principles, laws, commandments, ordinances etc…..

kedoshim - parsha4

The children of Israel were also given to more laws, commandments and statutes to live by, even while in the wilderness.  Also, the tilling and agricultural aspects of what the Hebrew people were to align their workings to was given to them by the words of God.  By Moses‘ teachings, given to him by God, the Hebrews were able to begin to formulate and sharpen skills needed to continue building the seed of the nation, which was promised to their predecessors; Abraham, Isaac, & Jacob.

"The Gleaners" by Gustave Dore' (1865)

“The Gleaners” by Gustave Dore’ (1865)

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