RSS#42 & #43 (ነገዶች – ጉዞ/ מַסְעֵי – מַטּוֹת)

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

I welcome you all to a new regeneration of cycle Torah readings!  This is another one of the many interpretations of the Scriptures from the light of Ras Tafari by, I, Lidj Yefdi (pronounced Lij Yef-dee).

I assure you that if you are patient with me, come with a willing mind and heart(ready to learn), you will receive more than what you might have asked for, in seeking the perspective of a Ras Tafarian’s I-sight (eyesight) if those who actually open up their Bibles to read in a Jewish/Hebrew cycle of readings, & thoroughly discern, have come to seek insight) into the study of the Scriptures.  So,with this Hebrew Shabbot (or Shabbat) we move into the opening of the Torah portion with Mâṭṭōt – מַּטּוֹת, on the 27th – כז, & on the 28th – כח, of the month of Tammuz – תמוז, in the year of 5777. (the Hebrew Calendar corresponds to a Lunar cycle of the Moon)  From an Ethiopic-Christian perspective and calculation, where the current year is 2009/7509; these readings from the Scriptures would align to what is known (in the same sense) as Nägädōch – ነገዶች,on the 15th – ፲፭, & on the 16th – ፲፮, of Hämlæy – ሐምሌ.  The Ethiopic calendar, which is solar (with its correspondence to the Sun) aligns to this Sabbath (or Senbet – ሰንበት) in the Ethiopian language of Amharic which is currently one of the languages of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (the other language being Ge’ez – ግእዝ).

Readings:

Numbers 30:2 – 32:42

Jeremiah 1:1 – 2:3

Matthew 5: 33-37

To follow up, on the last parsha/kífíl(portion) of the Scripture study, we’ve now to come to Mâṭṭōt-Nəgədōch, which both the Hebrew & Amharic words could be equivalent to “Tribes” in the English.

bechukotai - parsha (kinza- mattot negedoch)

At this point, Moses speaks to the heads of the tribes of Israel, on what God spoke about pertaining to vows.  When one of the children of Israel, were to make a vow or swear an oath to God, they were to uphold the words of that vow/oath.

If men were to make vows/oaths,(especially to God) they were to speak those words, which consisted of it and keep those words, which they had spoken.

[Numb. 30: 2-16]

chasid-chaiymanotegnawi8

If women were to make vows/oaths,(especially to God) even in the house of their fathers; if the father heard the vow & didn’t speak against it, then vow/(s) would stand & she would have to be completely responsible for every word of her vow/oath; the same applied if the woman had a husband, as well.

[Numb. 30: 3-16]

mattot - parsha (vow)3

{-when the Bible speak on these vows, it shows the countenance of the Hebrew men, willing to take on the burdens of accountability & responsibility for the women of their congregation.  Though women, could make oaths/vows, they were only held fully accountable; 1) if their father or husbands would allow them to take on the burdens of fulfilling a vow/oath, seeing as how Hebrew men, & men in general, would rather shoulder a burden/(s) for their households than see their women bear those strenuous experiences.  But women, of course, were free to choose to bear those burdens or not.  2) including those women who were widowed, & those that happened to be divorced}

mattot - parsha (vow)

God then spoke to Moses, to prepare the children of Israel, to avenge themselves, and those they lost during the plague, for the troubles that the Midianites brought upon them at the sin of Baal-Peor. (those Midianites that sought to destroy them along with the Moabites of Balak’s reign; ref. 41st Parsha Study), Moses sent a thousand, of each tribe of Israel along with Phineas. (son of Eleazar, grandson of Aaron) So, Israel warred against Midian & overtook them.

[Numb. 31: 1-24]

mattot - parsha [midian-arabia]

A general presumption of the whereabouts of Midian

The remains of Midian were shared among the children of Israel.  The cattle, riches, estates, and land; divided it all among the tribes.  The children of Israel even made an offering to God, for their triumph, for every one of them that took up arms had enough to spread/share among themselves.

[Numb. 31: 25-54]

pic. provided by the American Bible Society

pic. provided by the American Bible Society

Now, the children of the tribes of Reuben & Gad, came to Moses, Eleazar, and the princes of the congregation vying for land from the parts of Israel’s journey to the land of Canaan.  Though, the tribes of Reuben and Gad grew, and had much cattle, they sought to utilize the cattle in the part of the land that, seemingly was fit for raising and maintaining the like.

[Numbers Chpt. 32]

The children of the tribes of Gad & Reuben speak with Moses, on issues of Land _ painting by Aurthur Boyd Houghton

The children of the tribes of Gad & Reuben speak with Moses, on issues of Land _ (painting by Aurthur Boyd Houghton)

**DOUBLE – PORTION**

This Sabbath study, comprises Mattot & Masei, as a doubling for the readings of the Scriptures, to keep an adequate number of readings for this year’s cycle.

Readings:

Numbers 33:1- 36:13

Jeremiah 2: 4-28; chpt. 3:4

James 4: 1-12

These readings for Masei – מַסְעֵי , are usually read in conjunction with the previous readings for Matōt; in the Hebrew Torah alignment.  These portion (parsha/kífíl) of the Scriptures in the Ethiopic-Christian sense, come to us as, Gūzō – ጉዞ.

masei - parsha2

So, as we continue in our studies, in preparation of the conclusion of the Holy Bible’s Book of Numbers; the journeys from out of Egypt to the land of Canaan is shown again to us, to retrace the steps of the children of Israel.  From Rămesēs to Succoth, in and around the fifthteenth day of the Hebrews’ first month, Israel journeyed out of Egypt.  What really can be assessed by “journeys”, is that the wilderness wandering Israelites had not came to grips with the realization that the their 40 years was a testing ground.

[Numb. 33: 1-49]

masei - parsha (cities of refuge)2

Then God gave specific instructions for taking possession of the land which was promised.  In the plains of Moab, God spoke these words to Moses, for him to tell the children of Israel.

[Numb. 33: 50-56]

masei - parsha [12 tribes land depositary]

More instructions were explained, with the extent of specifying the borders of the land, and the portions which would be apportioned to each tribe.

[Numbers Chpt. 34]

naso - parsha [12_Tribes__Encampment_Positions]

Now, God also spoke to Moses about preserving things for the tribe of Le(w)vi, seeing as how God had placed on them, that they should not be apportioned land in the same sense as the rest of the tribes. (along with other aspects) The Levites were given portions of land which were adjacent to the rest of the tribes and their possessions of land.

[Numb. 35: 1-8]

masei - parsha (cities of refuge)

With the setting up of, certain places for the tribe of Le(w)vi, there also had to be a setting up of places for refuge/cities of refuge.  These cities of refuge were to be places of solitude, but most of all they were to be places of judgment to hold people accountable for their actions in this land which had been given the Hebrews.

[Numb. 35: 9-34]

masei - parsha [daughters of zelophehad_(manasseh-yosef)]

Now, remembering the daughters of Zelophehad, who came before the congregation to vie for the inheritance of their father, for he died and bear no son to inherit his due property, as a son of Israel.  ’s five daughters appealed to received his portion as their due inheritance, and Moses, after consultation of God, along with the congregation granted that the daughters of Zelophehad, take up their father’s possessions as their own.   But of course, the responsibility as daughters of Israel, were to be upheld in the taking up of inheritance among the Hebrews.

[Numb. 36: 1-13]

 

RSS#41 ( ፊንሐስ / פִּינְחָס )

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

I welcome you all to a new regeneration of cycle Torah readings!  This is another one of the many interpretations of the Scriptures from the light of Ras Tafari by, I, Lidj Yefdi (pronounced Lij Yef-dee).

I assure you that if you are patient with me, come with a willing mind and heart(ready to learn), you will receive more than what you might have asked for, in seeking the perspective of a Ras Tafarian’s I-sight (eyesight) if those who actually open up their Bibles to read in a Jewish/Hebrew cycle of readings, & thoroughly discern, have come to seek insight) into the study of the Scriptures.  So,with this Hebrew Shabbot (or Shabbat) we move into the opening of the Torah portion with Ph(F)ïncḥas פִּינְחָס, on the 20th – כ, & on the 21st – כא, of the month of Tammuz – תמוז, in the year of 5777. (the Hebrew Calendar corresponds to a Lunar cycle of the Moon)  From an Ethiopic-Christian perspective and calculation, where the current year is 2009/7509; these readings from the Scriptures would align to what is known (in the same sense) as Feenḥas – ፊንሐስ, on the 7th – ፯, & on the 8th – ፰, of Hämlæy – ሐምሌ.  The Ethiopic calendar, which is solar (with its correspondence to the Sun) aligns to this Sabbath (or Senbet – ሰንበት) in the Ethiopian language of Amharic which is currently one of the languages of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (the other language being Ge’ez – ግእዝ).

Readings:

Numbers 25:10 – 30:1

I Kings 18:46 – 19:21

Romans 11: 2-32

In this study, we continue in the accordance to the last portion.(Balak)  After what had become the Heresy of Baal-Peor, Phineas, the son of Eleazar, and the grandson of Aaron(Moses’ brother), lead in a moments notice, with zealot acts.

Pinchas ben-Eleazar (Phineas, the son of Eleazar; grandson of Aaron); Tribe of Lew[v]i

Pinchas ben-Eleazar (Phineas, the son of Eleazar; grandson of Aaron); Tribe of Lew[v]i _ accredited to Mr. John L. Johnson‘s work, the Black Biblical Heritage.

Phineas, in which this parsha study is named, from the Hebrew and the Ethiopic Amharic, had slain a Midianitish woman, who’s name was Cozbi, and a Simeonite prince of Israel; who’s name was Zimri.   These two, along with many others partook in the turning away from God, in the sin of Baal-Peor.  Phineas, had stood up for Israel, turning God’s wrath away from them because of his zealous act and understanding of the covenant that was to be kept, between Israel & YHWH.

"[a depiction]" Phineas, slaying the man of Israel, for his treachery, & the woman for her corruption. [Numb. 25: 7 & 8]--for full context--[read Numbers Chpt. 25, in entirety]

“[a depiction]” Phineas, slaying the man of Israel, for his treachery, & the woman for her corruption. [Numb. 25: 7 & 8]–for full context–[read Numbers Chpt. 25, in entirety]

So, in a sense, because Phineas was willing to give his all to his God & for his people; seeing as how the Moabites and Midianites had conspired against Israel to bring them out of the favor of God; Phineas even went to the extent of going to war for God and them(children of Israel).  Phineas’ actions coupled with his faith as well, opened the door in which God gave a Covenant of Peace.  He and his those of his lineage would partake in it, continuing the Priesthood, among the lineage of Aaron(Moses’ brother).

[Numb. 25: 10-18]

[Ancient] Egypt & Ethiopia; Mirrors of a Hamo-Shemitic culture: Phineas' Zealousy for God; Young & Valiant staff carrying King Tut(Tutankhamun)

[Ancient] Egypt & Ethiopia; Mirrors of a Hamo-Shemitic culture: Phineas’ Zealousy for God; Young & Valiant staff carrying King Tut(Tutankhamun)

Moses, was then instructed by God to take an account(census), for the second time, of the children of Israel, by family(or tribal lineage). [other census was taken in Numbers Chpt. 1: 1-16]

Because, of the waywardness of Israel’s faithfulness to God, their numbers dwindled and grew in spurts, while in the wilderness.  (ie. the Golden Calf, the Rebellion of Korah, and at this point; post- the Heresy of Baal-Peor…not forgetting the other instances withing Israel while in the wilderness)  So, Moses was instructed to take Eleazar, the High Priest(son of Aaron; father of Phineas), and number the children of Israel, once again, for God had said the because of the disobedience of this people, they should not enter into my rest.  But the children that would come after them would partake in the covenant, made the Abraham, Isaac & Jacob; albeit that those children of the generation of the Exodus from Egypt, would uphold the covenant and abide by the laws, commandments and statutes of God.

[Numb. 26: 1-51]

balak - parsha [land of canaan before conquest]

The children of Israel, were numbered by their tribal lineages, for the second time, by Moses and Eleazar; for God was preparing to bring the children of the Israelites, who made the Exodus from Egypt to the wilderness; into the Land that was Promised.

[Numb. 26: 52-65]

Twelve Tribes of Israel; Land of Canaan, divided inheritance for the Tribes of Israel.

Twelve Tribes of Israel; Land of Canaan, divided inheritance for the Tribes of Israel.

At this point, when the children of Israel, were receiving their plots and inheritances of the land, the Daughters of Zelophehad, came to Moses and the congregation in attempt to procure, the inheritance due to their father, who had passed & had no son pass his lineage to; for he (Zelophehad) had five daughters.  Usually, the children of Israel made it customary for the son to inherit the lot of his father’s.

- credit to africaontheblog.com

– credit to africaontheblog.com

Moses, in sincerity, took the Daughters of Zelophehad’s case to God, & God explained to Moses that though the children of Israel kept customary morals, the Daughters of Zelophehad had a very probable case.  God instructed to grant the daughters the plot that was to be allotted to their father, had he bear a son, whom would carry on his lineage among Israel.  From then on, it would not be a question whether or not a man bear a son to inherit his plot; because, the laws for possessing an inheritance from one parents among Israel, would not only come as a responsibility to the male children among Israel, but the responsibility would also come to the daughters, as well.

(Zelophehad; inheritance led to Manessah, son of Joseph)

[Numb. 27: 1-11 ]

The Daughter of Zelophehad _ painting by Iris Wexler

The Daughters of Zelophehad _ painting by Iris Wexler

God then spoke to Moses, saying, go up to Mount Abarim, and see the land which will give to the children of Israel, to dwell.  Moses, could view the land from afar, but he couldn’t enter in, because of his disobedience at the waters of Meribah, in Kadesh(when Moses struck the ROCK); so Moses would be gathered to his people, along with the generation that wandered in the wilderness.

[Numb. 27: 12-14]

Moses, spoke to God, atop Mount Abarim, requesting that he appoint the children of Israel, another who would succeed him in leading the Israel into the Promised Land.

haazinu - parsha [moses_on_mount_abarim]

There God said to Moses, that Joshua, the son of Nun, should succeed him, in leading the children of Israel into the Promised Land.  Moses was to take Joshua, in front of Eleazar, the High Priest, and before the congregation of all the Hebrews to give him the charge & honour in the place of himself. (Moses)

[Numb. 27: 15-23]

Moses Blesses Joshua in the midst of all the children of Israel _painting by James J. Tissot

Moses Blesses Joshua in the midst of all the children of Israel _painting by James J. Tissot

Sabbath [Numb. 28: 10-15]

shabbat shalom

Fourteenth/Fifteenth of the First Month(Passover) & the (feast of Unleavened Bread) [Numb. 28: 16-25]

pesach9

Passover – “Pesach” – Feast of Unleavened Bread

Day of the Firstfruits(Festival of Weeks) [Numb. 28: 26-31]

Festival of Weeks - "Shab(v)uout" - Firstfruits

Festival of Weeks – “Shab(v)uout” – Firstfruits

First Day of the Seventh Month(Rosh HaShannah) [Numb. 29: 1-6]

LeShanna Tob(v)ah - "Rosh HaShanna" - Hebraic/Jewish New Year

LeShanna Tob(v)ah T’cketeb(v) [Hebrew New Year Greeting] – “Rosh HaShanna” – Hebraic/Jewish New Year

Tenth Day of the Seventh Month(Yom Kippur/Day of Atonement) [Numb. 29: 9-11]

Yom Kippur - "Day of Atonement" - Yom HaKippurim

Yom Kippur – “Day of Atonement” – Yom HaKippurim

& the

Fifteenth Day of the Seventh Month(Feast of Tabernacles/Booths) [Numb. 29: 12-39]

Festival of Booths - "Sukkot" - Feast of Tabernacles

Festival of Booths – “Sukkot” – Feast of Tabernacles

RSS#40 ( ባላቅ / בָּלָק )

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

I welcome you all to a new regeneration of cycle Torah readings!  This is another one of the many interpretations of the Scriptures from the light of Ras Tafari by, I, Lidj Yefdi (pronounced Lij Yef-dee).

I assure you that if you are patient with me, come with a willing mind and heart(ready to learn), you will receive more than what you might have asked for, in seeking the perspective of a Ras Tafarian’s I-sight (eyesight) if those who actually open up their Bibles to read in a Jewish/Hebrew cycle of readings, & thoroughly discern, have come to seek insight) into the study of the Scriptures.  So,with this Hebrew Shabbot (or Shabbat) we move into the opening of the Torah portion with Bálâk – בָּלָק, on the 13th – יג, & on the 14th – יד, of the month of Tammuz – תמוז, in the year of 5777. (the Hebrew Calendar corresponds to a Lunar cycle of the Moon)  From an Ethiopic-Christian perspective and calculation, where the current year is 2009/7509; these readings from the Scriptures would align to what is known (in the same sense) as BáláQ – ባላቅ, on the 30th – ፴, of the month(ወርኀ) of Sänæy – ሰኔ, & on the 1st – ፩, of the month (ወርኀ) of Hämlæy – ሐምሌ.  The Ethiopic calendar, which is solar (with its correspondence to the Sun) aligns to this Sabbath (or Senbet – ሰንበት) in the Ethiopian language of Amharic which is currently one of the languages of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (the other language being Ge’ez – ግእዝ).

Readings:

Numbers 22: 2 – 25:9

Micah 5:6 – 6:8

Romans 11: 25-32

As we go forward in our studies, this Sabbath study, Israel after conquest had grown strong in the plain of Moab.  A king of Moab, who’s name was Balak, had seen what the children of Israel did to their adversaries in the habitations that were adjacent to his dominion.

[Numb. 22: 2-4]

-accredited to hebrew4christians.com site

-accredited to hebrew4christians.com site

King Balak, then sent messengers to a known “sorcerer“, or man of secret knowledge, whom wasn’t an Israelite; his name was called BalaamBalak devised a plan to have the children of Israel cursed; for they grew strong, the king and the people of Moab feared Israel.   So, it seemed to Balak, that if somehow he could have the children of Israel diverted from their focus then, they could be defeated and driven out of the lands, which they had now possessed.

[Numb. 22: 5-6]

balak - parsha [Moses-transjordan-1250]

The elders of Moab, along with the elders of Midian, together plotted against the children of Israel.  As messengers of Balak, the king of Moab, willing to compensate, for this endeavor, they went to Balaam, in a place called Pethor to present the words of Balak.

[Numb. 22: 7]

Midian & Moab, conspire against Israel _ [Numb. 22:4]

Midian & Moab, conspire against Israel _ [Numb. 22:4]

So, Balaam’s take is cordial with the king of Moab’s messengers & he welcomes them to stay the night, while he utilizes some time, to deliberate with God, whether the children of Israel could be cursed, & how to go about doing so.  God(YHWH), comes to Balaam, in a dream, and speaks with him about the men, who have come to him, & for what purpose.  Balaam says to God, that the men are of, Balak-king of Moab, and they sought him to curse the children of Israel.  After consultation with God, Balaam is not permitted to curse the children of Israel, nor to go with the messengers of Balak to Moab.  The next morning, Balaam tells the messengers that he cannot curse Israel nor go with them to the king; for God refused.  The messengers returned to Moab, and told the king, Balak, the news and the reasoning thereof.

[Numb. 22: 8-14]

But, Balak was persistent of Balaam to grant his request, so Balak sent others nobles of his influence to further persuade Balaam to Moab.  Balak offered Balaam, honour of distinction within his kingdom, but Balaam refused a second time; not budging a inch,  unwilling to incline his ear to the possible gifts of gold & silver, in abundance.

Balaam, to the messenger/nobles(servants) of Balak,

“…If Balak would give me his house

full of silver and gold, I cannot go beyond

the word of the LORD my God, to do less or more…”

[Numb. 22: 18]

Though, with his mind already made up about the situation, which Balak was in high pursuit of, Balaam gives a place to rest for the messengers sent by Balak, for a second night.  In that night, God spoke with Balaam once more saying; if the men of Balak call for you to travel with them, go with them to Balak in Moab.  But, Balaam rose up in the morning and just went with the messengers of Balak, more than likely with no intent giving reverence to the words God spoke; mainly because God’s anger was then kindled against Balaam.  So, while Balaam was on the way to Moab, riding on his donkey, an angel of God appeared in their way, holding a sword-in-hand, standing as an adversary; but only the donkey’s eyes were open to see.  The donkey turned aside, out of the way, into a field, & Balaam smote the donkey in attempt to force the donkey to obey his command.  Balaam mounted the donkey again, and continued along the way, but, in the field there was a vineyard with a two walls on each side.  The angel appeared a second time; with the donkey’s eyes being the only one to see again, so the donkey threw itself towards one wall, crushing Balaam‘s foot into it.  Balaam, smote the donkey a second time.  The angel, then went further on the road and stood, this time in a narrow place where there was no place to turn, to the left or right.  This time seeing the angel, the donkey fell down under Balaam, angering him to smite the donkey a third time with a staff.  At this point, God gave speech to the donkey; and the donkey ask Balaam, why had it been struck three times, along the road.  Balaam answering the donkey said, gave reason because the donkey would not yield to his command, also mentioning that if he had a sword, he would’ve killed the donkey.

Roman Catacombs relief – of the story Balaam on the road with the angel in the way of the path.

But, the donkey spoke once more saying, that was it not the same donkey which Balaam always had ridden; and had there ever been another day where the donkey acted in the manner that it did on this day.  Balaam answered no.  Then God opened Balaam‘s eyes to see the angel, as well; Balaam bowed down falling on his face.  Then the angel explained why the appearances were made and had not the donkey turned off the road those three times, Balaam would have been slain.

[Numb. 22: 15-35]

 

After Balaam‘s encounter on the road to Moab, he comes to Balak, but Balak, unknowing of whether his request had been answered officially or not, Balak lets Balaam know that he is not prepared to fulfill the giving of a honorable title or position that was previously promised to him, since he does not know if Balaam had come to Moab, to acknowledge the request of cursing Israel or not.  Balaam goes through the process of seemingly preparing to curse Israel, but, again an inquiry must be made to God (even of his{Balaam’s} psuedo-sorceric powers); this time with the words of God coming to Balak through Balaam.

[Numb. 22: 36-41]

Balaam has Balak set up seven altars upon a place called Kirjath-Huzoth.  There atop that high place overlooking the children of Israel, Balak did as Balaam said, in setting up seven altars.  The seven altars  had a bullock and a ram on each, as offerings & while Balak awaited an answer from Balaam; Balaam inquired of God what was next. God met Balaam, and Balaam told God that the seven altars were in place with their offerings.  God then told Balaam to return to Balak & he shall speak.  Balaam returned to Balak & then God’s words came through Balaam. 

Balaam to Balak,

“…How shall I curse, whom God

hath not cursed? or how shall defy,

whom the LORD hath not defied?…”

[Numb. 23: 1-8]

the Seven Altars _ painting by James J. Tissot [Numb. 23: 1-12] "Whom Jah bless, no man curse" _{Ras Tafari proverb}

the Seven Altars _ painting by James J. Tissot [Numb. 23: 1-12]Whom Jah bless, no man curse” _{Ras Tafari proverb}

Balak, the king of Moab, unsatisfied with the results atop Kirjath-huzoth, pleaded with Balaam to attempt again to curse Israel from another vantage point.  So, he brought Balaam to the field of Zophīm(atop Pisgah)
built the seven altars again, and put the offerings in place.  There he awaited a second answer from Balaam.  Balaam, spoke again to God, & God told him to return to him again & the words would be put in his mouth.

Balaam to Balak, in Zophīm(on Pisgah)

“…Rise up, Balak, and hear, harken to me,

thou son of Zippor:…” _vrs.18

“…God is not a man, that he should lie;

neither the son of man,

that he should repent:

hath he said, and not do it?

or hath he spoken,

and shall he not make it good?…” _vrs.19

[Numb. 23: 9-19]

Balak, again blesses Israel @ Ts'ophyiim (Zophim)

Balaam, again blesses Israel @ Ts’of’yim (Zophim) :

“…Let me die the death of the righteous, and let my end be like his…” Balaam the Sorcerer [Numb. 23: 10]

In spite of two blessings from Balaam, Balak proposes one more attempt to curse Israel, from another place.  Then he brought Balaam to Peor,that looked out toward Jeshimon.  The pattern of the seven altars and offerings were put into place once more; Balaam, himself, seeing that it pleased God to bless Israel, turned toward thew wilderness, seeing the children of Israel in their tents, seeing the order of Israel.  Balaam, then blessed Israel, yet a third time & cursed those, who would curse them.

Balaam blesses the children of Israel, yet a third time. _ painting by James Jacques Tissot

Balaam blesses the children of Israel, yet a third time. _ painting by James Jacques Tissot

There Balak’s anger was kindled against Balaam, for he said; he brought Balaam to Moab to curse his enemies and he had altogether blessed three times.

[Numb. 23: 27- 24:10]

Balak becomes infuriated with Balaam, for blessing Israel three times; contrary to what was asked of him.

Balak becomes infuriated with Balaam, for blessing Israel three times; contrary to what was asked of him.

Balaam then spoke a prophecy to Balak, from upon Peor.  The prophecy spoke of a Messianic kingdom among Israel.

“…A star shall come out of Jacob, and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel, and smite the corners of Moab, and destroy all the children of Sheth….”

[Numb. 24: 11-17]

RRR homework (le'Kiflu): Nuimbers, chapter 24; verse 17 study thoroughly!!! _ words to examine further: "star," "sceptre," "Jacob," "Israel," "Moab," & "Sheth." _ (meanings/definitions in English, Hebrew, & Amharic/Ge'ez, if applicable)

RRR homework (le’Kiflu): Numbers, chapter 24; verse 17 study thoroughly!!! _ words to examine further: “star,” “sceptre,” “Jacob,” “Israel,” “Moab,” & “Sheth.” _ (meanings/definitions in English, Hebrew, & Amharic/Ge’ez, if applicable)

(Jacob‘s had another name  given to him, which was Israel [Gen. 32:28])

After speaking the prophecy to Balak, Balaam rose up & returned to his place; Balak also went about his own way.

[Numb. 24: 13-25]

Numbers 24:17 = "Prophecy FULFILLED" (the voice of the nay-sayer/half truth teller) - Yeshua HaMesHIHa is the Conquering Lion of Judah! (a well-learned Ras Tafari/HebrewIsraelite/Christian, should ask then, "What is Christ/Conquering Lion of Judah's New Name?" _ Rev. 2:13

Numbers 24:17 = “Prophecy FULFILLED” (the voice of the nay-sayer/half truth teller) – Yeshua HaMesHIHa is the Conquering Lion of Judah! (a well-learned Ras Tafari/HebrewIsraelite/Christian, should ask then, “What is Christ/Conquering Lion of Judah’s New Name?” _ Rev. 2:13

Israel dwelt in Shittim, but then began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab; sacrificing and bowing down to their gods, joining themselves to Baal-Peor, and angering the God of Israel.  God, then spoke to Moses, instructing about taking heads of those who commit treason upon Israel and God.  Moses, gathers the judges of Israel & tells them to slay any of them that have joined themselves to Baal-Peor.

One even brought a Midianitish woman, (who conspired against them[Israel], to his brethren, even in the sight Moses and the congregation of Israel; who were weeping before the door of the Tabernacle.

Phineas, son of Eleazar, grandson of Aaron (Moses’ brother); rose up from among the people, took a javelin, & thrust it through both the bellies of them.

[Numb. 25: 1-9]

*FOR FURTHER STUDY*

1) http://www.hebrew4christians.com/Scripture/Parashah/Summaries/Balak/Curses_of_Laban/curses_of_laban.html

2) TRUE ORIGIN OF THE STAR OF DAVID pt.1

(LOJS)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-DmE31LBzY

3) TRUE ORIGIN OF THE STAR OF DAVID pt.2

(LOJS)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nlV7TLazwqk

4) Numbers 24: 17 _  prophecy of Balaam

 

RSS#39 ( የሕጉ ትእዛዝ ይህ ነው / חֻקַּת )

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

I welcome you all to a new regeneration of cycle Torah readings!  This is another one of the many interpretations of the Scriptures from the light of Ras Tafari by, I, Lidj Yefdi (pronounced Lij Yef-dee).

I assure you that if you are patient with me, come with a willing mind and heart(ready to learn), you will receive more than what you might have asked for, in seeking the perspective of a Ras Tafarian’s I-sight (eyesight) if those who actually open up their Bibles to read in a Jewish/Hebrew cycle of readings, & thoroughly discern, have come to seek insight) into the study of the Scriptures.  So,with this Hebrew Shabbot (or Shabbat) we move into the opening of the Torah portion with C(K)ḥukat חֻקַּת, on the 6th – ו, & on the 7th – ז, of the month of Tammuz – תמוז, in the year of 5777. (the Hebrew Calendar corresponds to a Lunar cycle of the Moon)  From an Ethiopic-Christian perspective and calculation, where the current year is 2009/7509; these readings from the Scriptures would align to what is known as YeHíggu T’îzáz Yih’ Näw – የሕጉ ትእዛዝ ይህ ነው, on the 23rd – ፳፫, & on the 24th – ፳፬, of the month (ወርኀ) of Sänæy – ሰኔ.  The Ethiopic calendar, which is solar (with its correspondence to the Sun) aligns to this Sabbath (or Senbet – ሰንበት) in the Ethiopian language of Amharic which is currently one of the languages of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (the other language being Ge’ez – ግእዝ).

Readings:

Numbers 19:1- 22:1

Judges 11: 1-33

Hebrews 9: 11-28

John 3: 10-21

On this Sabbath, we study where Moses and his brother Aaron, receive the ordinance of the law, in which God commanded them to take a “red heifer,” in the order for sacrifice/offering.  Instead of this offering being of the male of the first year, this one was to be of the female; also, she was not to be offered in the Tabernacle (Mishkan/Dinkʷan) but, to be offered outside of the camp, for her blood was to be sprinkled seven(7) times before the Tabernacle of the congregation, with the finger of Eleazar (Levite priest-son of Aaron).

[Numb. 19: 1-10]

chukat - parsha [the red heifer_on_logs]

The law for the death of a man in a tent, was also given to the children of Israel, in this portion of the Scriptures.  Seven(7) days shall the tent, any open vessel, which hath no covering, whosoever touched the one slain/deceased, in the open field, or the grave would be unclean.

[Numb. 19: 11-21]

chukat - parsha [maps-bible-archeology-exodus-route-overview-kadesh-barnea-jordan] bible.ca

Upon the trek of the children of Israel, when they had come to Kadesh-Barnea, Miriam the Prophetess, (Moses’ sister) was gathered to her people(passed to the spirit world)

[Numb. 20:1]

Miriam (Moses & Aaron's sister) a Prophetess_(Ex. 15:20, 21)

Miriam – (ማርያም [ምርያም]) – מרים (Moses & Aaron’s sister) passes at Kadesh-Barnea in the month of Nisan. [Numb. 20: 1] ; 
Prophetess (Ex. 15:20, 21)

As the journey in the wilderness continued, the children of Israel grew restless once again.  The congregation gathered themselves together against Moses and Aaron.  They spoke ill off them, bringing them further into the wilderness to die of thirst, for there was no water.  Moses and Aaron went before the Tabernacle and fell on their faces(bowing in a plea to God).  God appeared to them, and spoke to Moses, instructing him to take his rod and gather the assembly of the children of Israel with Aaron.  Then he was to speak to the Rock, in front of the Hebrews and there water would come from the Rock; enough for the entire community of Israel.  Moses, along with Aaron gathered the people and brought them before the Rock, but in frustration with the constant murmuring and doubt of the children of Israel, instead of speaking to the Rock, Moses struck it with his rod, twice and water came from quenching the thirst of all the people and their cattle.

[Numb. 20: 2-13]

water from the rock2

Because of Moses’ disobedience, and because he waxed hot (became angered with the children of Israel; allowing his frustration to interfere with the instruction given to him by God);  God told him that he would not bring the people into the land, which was promised to their forefathers.  & the waters, which came from the Rock in that place, because the children of Israel strove with God; would be called Meribah (which was to mean= quarrel, to strive, or provocation)

[Numb. 20: 13]

Water From The Rock _wall painting of Moses in a Roman Catacomb dating to the 4th century AD.

Water From The Rock _wall painting of Moses in a Roman Catacomb dating to the 4th century AD.

Moses then sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom, requesting safe passage through the land of Edom, assuring that nothing would stolen and the Hebrews come not to quarrel with any of the inhabitants of the land.  But, Edom would not allow Israel to pass through the land.  Edom warned Israel that if Israel was to pass through Edom would come out with the sword.  Moses speaking for Israel, assured again the nothing would taken and if so, it would be recompensed but, Edom refused once again; and came out to divert Israel from their path.  Israel, then turned away from Edom and journeyed from Kadesh to Mount Hor.  

[Numb. 20: 14-22]

{keep in mind: while going through this portion of the Scriptures lesson “Edom” equated/represents the , who became known as Edom; & when the Scriptures speak of “Israel,” even from a singular tone, it is speaking of the children of Israel/the Israelites.  Jacob, twin brother of Esau, would become known as “Israel” & father what would be known as the Twelve Tribes Of Israel.}

Aaron-אַהֲרֹן (Moses' brother) High Priest of Israel

Aaron – אַהֲרֹן – አሮን
(Moses’ brother)
High Priest of Israel
Byzantine (Eastern Orthodox Christian) painting

God, then spoke to Moses and Aaron at Mount Hor.  God said to them that Aaron (Moses’ brother), would be gathered to his people, and not enter into the land promised, to the children of Israel’s forefathers,for the rebellious actions at the waters of Meribah.  So upon Mount Hor, Aaron’s place as the Kahin HaGadol(High Priest) would pass along to his eldest son, Eleazar.  Moses was to take the garments and vestments of the High Priest and placed on and in the possession of his nephew, Eleazar.  Aaron then passes, leaving the Priesthood in the hands of son Eleazar, at Mount Hor.

[Numb. 20: 23-29]

Mount Hor - הֹר הָהָר - ሖር ተራራ

Mount Hor – הֹר הָהָר – ሖር ተራራ

A Canaanite king, whose name was Arad, heard word of the children of Israel making trek to Canaan and he went out to fight against them and took some of them prisoners.  Israel, made vow with God, that if those of the Canaanite king Arad, who took some of the Hebrews as prisoners, were delivered into their hands, they would utterly destroy their cities.  God heard them, and gave way to for them to keep their word, and it was made so, to the extent that the place where the king Arad, the Canaanite dominion was, would be called Hormah,for it was close to Mount Hor, where the passing of Aaron, was.

[Numb. 21: 1-3]

wildernessmap

After the victory over Arad, the Canaanite king, the children of Israel journeyed from Mount Hor, by the way of the Red Sea, to go around the land of Edom, and then the soul of the people grew weary, becoming discouraged.  Again, they spoke against Moses, moaning and groaning for food and water.  God sent fiery serpents, among the people and were bitten by them.  Many of the children of Israel died because of this, and turned to Moses, asking him to forgive them their doubt, and intercede with God for them.  Moses prayed for them and God instructed Moses, to make a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole so that every one that looked upon it would live.  Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it on a pole and what God said, had come to pass.  Those that looked upon the Brazen Serpent lived,  in spite of being bitten by the other serpents.

[Numb. 21: 4-9]

chukat - parsha [the brazen serpent- son of man]

The children of Israel set forward and then, making their journey East around Edom; (From Kadesh-through-Moab) until they came to Beer (pronounced Ba-e’yr) where they then were given water to drink from God.

[Numb. 21: 10-20]

chukat - parsha [the brazen serpent] www-personal.umich.edu

Israel, sent messengers to Sihon the king of the Amorites, requesting permission safe passage through the land of the Amorites, in the same manner that Israel requested of Arad, whom was a Canaanite king.  Israel would not take anything that was not their own and would not quarrel with any of the inhabitants of the land of the Amorites.  Sihon, wouldn’t let Israel pass through either, and gathered all his people together, to go out against Israel.  At Jahaz, the Amorites fought against Israel; Israel smote the Amorites with sword and then, possessed the lands from Arnon-to-Jabbok, even to the borders of the children of Ammon.

wilderness (zared river)

While Israel, dwelt in the land conquered of the Amorites, they also drove out the Amorites in Jaazer.  The children of Israel then, went north, and Og, the king of Bashan, cam out against them but, God told Moses “…to fear him not…,” for he to would be delivered into his hand.  There Israel, smote them and possessed the land there, as well.  Wherein, at that point, the children of Israel pitched camp in the plains of Moab, on the side of Jordan (river), near Jericho.

[Numb. 21: 21-35]

wilderness (from oboth-ijeabarimMoab-zared-arnon-ar-beer-mattanah-nahaliel-bamoth-pisgah-jahaz-hesbon-KHmeosh-dibon-nophah-medeba)

*  [ ADDITIONAL NOTES FOR FURTHER STUDY: ] *

1) Islamic, Sura al-Baqurah (سورة البقرة), has a strong connection with this week’s Torah portion/study.

http://www.thequranrecitation.com/al-baqarah.html?language=english

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Baqara

2) Could the teachings of the Kundalini Energy have a connection with the Brazen Serpent?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kundalini

http://www.crystalinks.com/kundalini.html

-2a. Did the aspects of the Brazen Serpent influence modern medicine?

The Caduceus – the symbol for Healing? _ (works cited from Essays by Ekowa)

http://www.essaysbyekowa.com/iconography.htm

3) Biblical reference to the serpent, in lieu of, wisdom/intelligence or a positive perspective….

Matthew 10: 16 _

Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves:

be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves.

RSS#38 (ቆሬ / קֹרַח)

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

I welcome you all to a new regeneration of cycle Torah readings!  This is another one of the many interpretations of the Scriptures from the light of Ras Tafari by, I, Lidj Yefdi (pronounced Lij, Yef-dee).

I assure you that if you are patient with me, come with a willing mind and heart(ready to learn), you will receive more than what you might have asked for, in seeking the perspective of a Ras Tafarian’s I-sight (eyesight) if those who actually open up their Bibles to read in a Jewish/Hebrew cycle of readings, & thoroughly discern, have come to seek insight) into the study of the Scriptures.  So,with this Hebrew Shabbot (or Shabbat) we move into the opening of the Torah portion with Korach/ KoraKH‘/ Koraḥ – קֹרַח, on the 29th – כט, & the 30th – ל, of the month of Siw(v)an – סִיוָן, in the year of 5777. (the Hebrew Calendar corresponds to a Lunar cycle of the Moon)  From an Ethiopic-Christian perspective and calculation, where the current year is 2009/7509; these readings from the Scriptures would align to what is known as Q’oräy ቆሬ, on the 16th – ፲፮,  & on the 17th – ፲፯, of the month (ወርኀ) of Sänæy – ሰኔ.  The Ethiopic calendar, which is solar (with its correspondence to the Sun) aligns to this Sabbath (or Senbet – ሰንበት) in the Ethiopian language of Amharic which is currently one of the languages of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (the other language being Ge’ez – ግእዝ).

Readings:

Numbers 16:1 – 18:32

I Samuel 11:14 – 18:32

Romans 13: 1-7

*(extra reading for Rosh Hodesh- ראש חודש)

(*Numbers 28: 9-15)

http://www.jewfaq.org/chodesh.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosh_Hodesh

roshkhodesh

(4th Hebrew month) Tammuzתמוז

Now, in continuance of our studies of Torah, we come to the parsha(portion) of Korah’.  Now, in this study of the Scriptures, a Levite, named Korah’ (ben Izhar- son of Izhar), joins himself wth Dathan & Abiram, who are Reubinites(of the Tribe of Reuben), and two-hundred & fifty princes of Israel.  This group began a rebellion, that challenged the authority of Moses and Aaron, among the children of Israel.

[Numb. 16:1-19]

korach - parsha [Lewiim - descent]

God instructed Moses and Aaron, to get away from Korah and his rebellious few, and tell the children of Israel to separate themselves as well; for he would consume them

[Numb. 16: 20-35]

The Earth Swallows Up (Death of Korah's Rebellion) _painting by Gustave Dore'

The Earth Swallows Up Korah (Death of Korah’s Rebellion) _painting by Gustave Dore’

God then, spoke to Moses to tell Eleazar(Aaron’s son; a Priest of Levi), to take the censors of Korah, which they took in the Tabernacle for the fire and the incense, and make them broad plates for a covering of the altar.  “They shall be a sign to the children of Israel.”

[Numb. 16:36-40]

korach - parsha [eleazar priest]

The next day the children of Israel, murmured against Moses & Aaron, saying, “…they killed people of God…,” and then a plague fell upon them(Israel) and more died, even after those of Korah’s Rebellion suffered judgment.

[Numb. 16:41-50]

Korah and the rebellion swallowed by the earth - Holman Bible illustration (1890)

Korah and the rebellion swallowed by the earth – Holman Bible illustration (1890)

God then, instructed Moses to gather the staffs of the Princes Of Israel; one for each of the tribes (12) and adding one more the tribe of Levi, in which, Aaron would be the head.  (making that thirteen [13] staff-rods).  God would then choose the staff to show where he would place his authority among the children of Israel, to put an end to their murmuring.  Moses, took the staffs and placed them in the Tabernacle of Witness.

[Numb. 17: 1-7]

korach - parsha [staffs of the Princes of Israel]

The very next morning, Moses entered into the Tabernacle, only to find that Aaron’s rod, had blossomed and brought forth buds, and also yielded almonds.  Moses brought forth the staff of Aaron, by God’s command to be a witness/memorial to Israel of God’s will way.  Whomsoever go against God’s way would not share in his rest.

[Numb. 17:8-13]

Aaron's Rod Budding (illustration from the 1728 Figures de la Bible)

Aaron’s Rod Budding (illustration from the 1728 Figures de la Bible)

God then spoke to Aaron, saying, that he and his sons (lineage), were to perform the duties of service in the Tabernacle, so no wrath would anymore fall upon Israel.  The Levites were to administer the reception of of offerings made by the children of Israel to God in the Tabernacle; but they wouldn’t have an inheritance as the rest of the children of Israel(Tribes) had.  The reason being was & is, because the “tithes” of Israel would be given to them by God.

[Numb. 18:1-24]

✡ Chief Rabbi Wentworth A. Matthew Memorial Day ✡

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

 

I welcome you all to yet another posting here on Ras Tafari Renaissance, for the a memorial in acknowledgment of the Chief Rabbi and head of the Black Jews in America, the pioneer; Rabbi Wentworth Authur Matthew.

rabbi wentworth a. matthew (photo by james van derzee)

So much can be said about this wonderfully gifted and blessed individual, but we will try to leave most of the more in-depth points of this man’s life up to your research.  Rabbi Matthew, wasn’t a completely complex individual especially, to those who knew him well, or knew of his work.  A leader, teacher, innovator, poised and extremely aware the world around him and at large.

rabbi wentwerth a. matthew and member of the commandment keepers congregation

To those who have yet to take a look into this great man’s life and his life’s work, you are in for a treat as you will find that he was steadfast in his teachings, loyal to those around him.  But, in most of all very truthful in his analogies, appropriations and actions.

rabbi wentwerth a. matthew2

So, today we do him his well-deserved honor as a brother, teacher, scholar, organizer of men, and pioneer among many.

We give thanks to the father for him, coming to leave a legacy, and work of love for his people.

Chief Rabbi Wentworth A. Matthew

Rabbi Wentwerth A. Matthew

We here at Ras Tafari Renaissance, are happy to announce that a compilation of film production has been found to be in the works and as per research, reportedly in the postproduction phase.  We lend our full support to the finalization of this project for the cataloguing of the lives of the participants of the Commandments Keepers Congregation of the Living God, Inc; the Rabbinical College of the Royal Order of the Ethiopian Hebrews otherwise known as the “Black Jews of Harlem.”

***

This film is said to be produced and directed by Marlaine Glicksman, & hopefully if word makes it to her and the organization supporting this work; we encourage, and exhort the efforts brought forward to this point.  We also firmly stand with the information that is surely to be revealed, as per our own research and findings into this once vibrant and far-reaching community, as well as its remnant in complete solidarity.

links (references):

“Gong” Day – Leonard P. Howell

Greetings in the name of His & Her Imperial Majesties Qedamawi Haile Sellassie I & Itege Menen Asfaw,

I welcome you all to yet another post here on Ras Tafari Renaissance! Today, we acknowledge the birth as a memorial to whom is known as the “First Rasta.”  Leonard Percival Howell, known to the world or those who knew him personally one of the first proclaimers of Ras Tafari or Christ in His Kingly Character.

Born June 16, 1898, in May Crawle River village, Jamaica; the oldest of ten, to Clarence Theophilus & Clementina; a cultivator and a agricultural laborer, respectively.  Howell’s story can seriously help many people from around understand the movement of Ras Tafari, more precisely.  This instance being one that is very much overlooked more times than not.  Howell reportedly left Jamaica early in his youth, traveling to many places gaining an understanding that few of his birthplace and few ever, gain in a lifetime.  Like many in Jamaica at that time, the people found themselves because of historical disposition, in adherence to many Anglican principles.  Howell and his family being in that number, but unawares of the desires and destiny to be set in motion.

Howell’s exposure became more grandeur when he began to work as a seaman as part of a Jamaican contingent sent to Panama, during World War I (WWI).  Howell then found himself traveling from time-to-time between Jamaica, Panama, the United States (New York City, specifically) utilizing his knowledge and skillset to further his endeavors in agricultural cultivation and distribution.  Howell also made subtle trips to Europe and among other places, as well.

Hope Howell,(L) Leonard P. Howell, (C) & Marcus Garvey (R) in NYC circa 1928-1932

These experiences then began to expose him other schools of thought while congregating with other people from other walks of life.  Howell is suspected to have been exposed to the philosophies and opinions of Marcus Mosiah Garvey while traveling to and fro, in between the Americas.  Communism, Marxism, Pan-Africanism, these are just some of the schools of thought that Howell was expected to have been exposed to while on his travels, according documenter Helene Lee and others.  Howell also married a woman named Tyneth.  Upon his return to Jamaica in whelms of the rising of a young king to the status Emperor of an empire in Africa, Howell had been inspired to take action on the influences he’d been experiencing for some time.  When Howell returned to Jamaica in 1932, two years after Haile Selassie I was crowned emperor of Ethiopia, he began holding public meetings, fusing all that he’d learned abroad with local ideas. His worldliness and gifts as a speaker not only attracted Jamaica’s underclass, they gained him the attention of local authorities.

Leonard with wife Tyneth, circa 1930

During his time in New York, he joined fellow Jamaican, Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), founded in 1914.  But, while Howell was clearly influenced by Garvey’s thinking, so much so that Garvey is often mistakenly identified as the founder of Ras Tafari; it is fairly unknown that Howell had a mixed relationship with Garvey, a Roman Catholic Christian, who later criticized Emperor Haile Sellassie I & the Ras Tafari movement in a negative light.  A criticism which earned him a stern rebuttal by the Dr. Melaku E. Bayen, who lead the movement also in Harlem and other parts of the US, which would become the Ethiopian World Federation, Inc., founded in NYC in 1937.Howell’s first public articulation of the divinity of Haile Selassie occurred in January 1933. This first open deification, which proclaimed the Emperor of Ethiopia to be the incarnation of God, took place at “Redemption Ground” in Kingston but was not successful in gaining converts.

Leonard P. Howell (Ras Tafari’s first proclaimer)

Among his followers, Howell preferred being called Gangunguru Maragh or G.G. Maragh to distinguish his ritual, mystical personality from his secular identity. Howell’s ritual name is thought to be a combination of three Hindi words – gyan (wisdom), gun (virtue or talent), and guru (teacher). In Hindi, Maragh means “great kings” or “king of kings.”[6] Howell used this name as a pseudonym when he published The Promised Key.

 

Even amidst many struggles with the Jamaican government Howell started and establishment which was dubbed “Pinnacle.” But, for his teachings of black power and denunciation of colonial rule, for created the first Rastafarian village in Jamaica at Sligoville, St. Catherine in 1940. The settlement called “Pinnacle” due to its high hilltop elevation and was symbolically located in the first free village established to house former slaves in Jamaica. Pinnacle was one of the country’s first self-sustaining communities, which was intended outcome all the while.  Its community members were able to meet their needs without dependence on outside resources.  Some refer to Pinnacle as a commune, in which Howell’s form of socialism was practiced.  After Pinnacle’s foundation, other similar Rastafarian communities were established across the country. Pinnacle was especially known for the cultivation of cannabis (marijuana) that has religious significance for Rastafarians.

In efforts to shut down Howell and his followers, police raided Howell’s community of Pinnacle multiple times and labeled the community a “communist experiment” in 1941. Just one year after the creation of the settlement, government forces infiltrated and arrested many of Howell’s followers. After escaping immediate arrest, Howell was eventually arrested and tried once again for sedition and consequently was faced with two more years behind bars. Upon his release in 1943, he returned to Pinnacle once again.[20] Howell hired guards and brought in watch dogs to protect Pinnacle from future attacks.

The police raided Pinnacle several more times in the 1950s. In 1954, militia invaded the community and almost completely destroyed the village. Even after this mass destruction, settlers returned, though the settlement was never restored to its previous thriving state. During a final raid in 1958, the police cleared out the remaining residents completely. Despite its ultimate destruction, the impact of the settlement made it legendary among other settlements around the country, who were observed to have been “miniature Pinnacles.”

Howell still to this day doesn’t receive the just do of recognition he earned as one of the most prolific peoples of African descent in the Western Hemisphere & that must change.